during this time, the infected person can still transmit the disease to another person, a viral load test could be done to detect the virus the window period is 5 days but it is not covered by insurance or given free • at first gay men, Haitians, hemophiliacs affected – fueling prejudice, stigmatization, fear of sex; HIV soon spread to general population • AIDS condition caused by HIV • 27 clinical conditions can be used in diagnosing AIDS along with HIV + status; include the presence of “opportunistic infections” that take advantage of weakened immune system; also include cancer, clinical conditions, and other infections • opportunistic infections: pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (common organism multiplies in lungs, fluid accumulates —>pneumonia); Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (most common tuberculosis in people with AIDS, resistant to most antibiotics); toxoplasmosis (disease of brain and CNS, caused by parasite found in cat feces) • conditions associated with AIDS: Kaposi’s sarcoma (cancer of blood vessels, red/purple splotches under skin); lymphoma (cancer of lymphatic system/brain); invasive cervical cancer (can lead to urine cancer); HIV encephalopathy/ AIDS dementia (direct infection of brain, impairment of mental functioning); cadidiasis (yeast infection of mouth) • time from HIV infection to AIDS variable—ranges from few months to 17 years • early phase-flu like symptoms, intermediate phase- T cells decrease to 200-500 per milliliter of blood, advanced phase-T cells drop to under 200, person with AIDS dies from opportunistic disease • Since the mid 1990s: more African-Americans with AIDS than white Americans in US • populations affected most: men who have sex with men, injection drug users, heterosexual persons, infants who's mothers have untreated HIV infections • STIs increase likelihood of HIV infection two to five times • in 2001, minorities were 68% of diagnosed AIDS cases
• race and ethnicity are not risk factors: they correlate with homelessness, access to health care • Tests should be taken 12 weeks after high-risk behavior, repeated 6 months after an uncertain result • There are three types of tests available: nucleic acid tests (NAT), antigen/antibody tests, and antibody tests. HIV tests are typically performed on blood or oral fluid. • a NAT looks for the actual virus in the blood. The test can give either a positive/negative result • an antigen/antibody test looks for both HIV antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are produced by your immune system when you’re exposed to bacteria or viruses like HIV Most rapid tests and home tests are antibody tests . • With a rapid antibody screening test , results are ready in 30 minutes or less. These tests are used in clinical and nonclinical settings, usually with blood from a finger prick or with oral fluid; the oral fluid antibody self-test provides fast results. You have to swab your own mouth to collect an oral fluid sample and use a kit to test it. Results are available in 20 minutes; the home collection kit
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- Fall '09
- Human Sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior