Port in saint domingue was among girards frequent

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port in Saint-Domingue was among Girard's frequent trading ports, the swindle story is totally without fact and logically impossible. Saint-Domingue was a French colony, controlled by a white minority government and plantation owners. Saint-Domingue was part of a 30,000 square mile island in the West Indies. Today, the island is occupied in the west by the Republic of Haiti and in the east by the Dominican Republic. Haiti was the French colony named Saint Domingue, whereas the Dominican Republic was a Spanish colony named Santo Domingo. The island, because of its valuable sugar cane crop, was among the world's most wealthy colonies. Nearly a half million poorly treated, starved, overworked, frequently whipped, and degraded slaves worked the sugar plantations. They lived under atrocious conditions. Toussaint L'Ouverture was born in Saint Domingue on November 1, 1745 (some historians believe May 20, 1743), and christened Francois Domingue Toussaint. His parents were Pauline and Gaou-Guinon, the son of an African Chieftain, and both were slaves on the Breda plantation. Toussaint, although raised as a slave, was more fortunate than most slaves. The master of the Breda plantation did not abuse his slaves, and allowed some to learn to read and write. Toussaint was a strong, proud, highly intelligent person, Toussaint was not active in the first uprisings which occurred in 1789. When the massive uprising occurred in 1791, Toussaint was still a somewhat unknown fighting for freedom, but he quickly became one of the leaders in the uprising. From 1791 to 1793, Toussaint trained an army of run-away slaves and free Blacks, whose purpose was to obtain freedom and abolish slavery on the island. For fifteen years, the slave army fought armies from Spain, England, and France. During that time, 300,000 Blacks, 60,000 French, 60,000 English, and 30,000 white inhabitants were killed. Since Girard's last voyage to that island was in 1777, fourteen years before the uprising, Toussaint could not have known Girard 35 . Toussaint's army first fought for the Spaniards, who owned the other half of the island and were attempting to capture Saint Domingue. When the French Governor 19
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promised the slaves freedom, Toussaint's army deserted the Spaniards and fought for the French to defend Saint Domingue from the Spaniards. When the English later attempted to capture this valuable colony, Toussaint's army fought them. In 1795, Toussaint was rewarded by being designated a General in the French Republic Army. In 1798, the French government reluctantly freed the slaves and recognized Toussaint as their leader. His army was adequately supplied first by the Spaniards and then by the French, so Toussaint had no need to contract Girard to deliver arms. Toussaint ruled the island between 1798 and 1801. Dr. Edward Stevens and other American sympathizers supplied guns and food to Toussaint between 1798 and 1801. Orders From France, pages 125-170, a book by Roger Kennedy, indicates that since the French navy was confiscating supplies sent to Saint Domingue, Jefferson directed the United States Navy to protect and assure the delivery of these supplies.
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  • Fall '19
  • Test, Second Bank of the United States, Stephen Girard, Marie Antoinette Girard

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