Other energy sources 1 coal conversion 2 hydrogen 3

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Other energy sources: 1. Coal conversion 2. Hydrogen 3. Petroleum: has similar detriments to coal, though with less ash products. 4. Hydroelectric: cleaner energy, but disrupts ecosystems by installing and operating dams (big picture still isn’t perfect here) 5. Nuclear: cleaner than fossil fuels, but has its own complications (more about this in Chapter 21) Energy sources 8
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1. Coal conversion: process of converting coal into gas-phase fuels Break larger molecules into smaller molecules Must break C-C bonds C-H and C-O bonds are formed Coal Gasification: Coal + water + air Methane + synthesis gas (“syngas”) C (s) + H 2 O (l) CO (g) + H 2(g) ΔH = 131 kJ (endothermic) Energy sources 9
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Syngas is a fuel on its own; CO(g) and H 2 (g) products for syngas. Energy sources 10
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Syngas has a low fuel value compared to methane. Energy sources 11
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Upgrading syngas: converting syngas to Synthetic Natural Gas, CH 4 (g) 1. CO(g) + H 2 O(g) ® CO 2 (g) + H 2 (g) D H = -41 kJ (“CO shift reaction”) 2. CO 2 (g) is removed 3. CO(g) + 3 H 2 (g) ® CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(g) D H = -206 kJ 4. H 2 O is removed, leaving Synthetic Natural Gas, SNG (CH (g)) Energy sources 12
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Syngas is useful in other processes, but the production is endothermic, so alternative mechanisms may be more favourable, including steps such as:
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