For example future research should investigate if

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For example, future research should investigate if increased advertising literacy for children,possibly via training or education, could increase the level of cognitive processing of the foodcues. This could foster children’s skepticism towards the advertisements and thereby possiblydecrease the cue-reactivity to such food cues. What is more, the extinction of a classicalconditioning relationship between food cues and subsequent intake seems to be successfulamong adults following training [50], but this has not been studied in children. In summary,intervention studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of training or educationalprograms in reducing susceptibility to food cues, disrupt progression of the incentive-sensitization process, and ultimately protect children from overeating.ConclusionsEvidence shows that food advertising affects eating behavior among children, butmore research is needed to examine individual susceptibility factors and the exact underlyingmechanisms. The proposed REFCAM provides a framework for (1) explaining therelationship between exposure to advertised food cues and food behaviors and (2) guiding
11future research questions and intervention opportunities. Although companies assert their rightto freedom of commercial speech, restrictions of marketing efforts should be seriouslyconsidered - especially those directed at children, because this marketing contributes tochildhood obesity [4,5]. In times of increasing childhood obesity rates and related rises inhealth service utilization and costs, there is a need for public debate on advertising techniquesattempting to persuade children subconsciously. Reversing the trend of increased childhoodobesity will require both bold action by policymakers to restrict children’s exposure tounhealthy food marketing and evidence-based interventions to help children defendthemselves against commercial messages promoting unhealthy food intake.
12Advertising Effect ProcessIncentive Sensitization ProcessFigure 1:Reactivity to Embedded Food Cues in Advertising Model (REFCAM)Food CuesEmbedded inAdvertisementsCue Reactivity:PhysiologicalandPsychologicalResponsesPalatable FoodIntakeMessage Factors: Level ofIntegration of Food CuesIndividual SusceptibilityFactors: e.g. Impulsivityand Attentional Bias
13AcknowledgementsFrans Folkvord drafted the manuscript, Doeschka J Anschütz, Emma Boyland, Bridget Kelly,and Moniek Buijzen provided critical revisions and writing assistance. All authors proofreadthe article and approved the final version of the manuscript for submission.References
14[1] Nestle M. (Eds): Food Politics: How the food industry influences nutrition and health.University of California Press; 2013.[2] Klein N (Eds): No Logo.Picador; 2002.

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Term
Fall
Professor
nancywong
Tags
Nutrition, Test, food cues

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