The genetic code how are the instructions for

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The Genetic Code How are the instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins encoded into DNA?
So how many bases correspond to an amino acid?
Genetic Code Second mRNA base First mRNA base (5ʹஒend) Third mRNA base (3ʹஒend) 64 codons includes 3 Stop codons redundant(>1 codon may specify a particular aa) but notambiguous(no codon specifies more than 1 aa) codons must be read in the correct reading frame(correct groupings) in order for the specified polypeptide to be produced 5’ 3’ +H3N (C-terminal) (N-terminal) CO2
Evolution of the genetic code The genetic code is nearly universal, shared by the simplest bacteria to the most complex animals Genes can be transcribed and translated after being transplanted from one species to another*
Promoter 3ʹஒ5Transcription unit DNA Initiation RNA polymerase Start point Template strand of DNA RNA tran- script Unwound DNA Elongation 3ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒ35ʹஒ5ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒRewound DNA 5ʹஒ3ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒRNA transcript Termination 3ʹஒ5ʹஒ5ʹஒ3ʹஒCompleted RNA transcript RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, the DNA strands unwind, and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesisat the start point on the template strand. The polymerase moves downstream, unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5ʹஒ3ʹஒ. During transcription, the DNA strands re-form a double helix. Eventually, the RNA transcript is released, terminating transcription; the RNA polymerase detaches from the DNA. Transcription RNA polymerase
Promoter 5ʹஒ3ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒTATA box Start point Transcription factors 5ʹஒ3ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒSeveral transcription factors Additional transcription factors RNA polymerase II Transcription factors RNA transcript 5ʹஒ3ʹஒ3ʹஒ5ʹஒ5ʹஒTranscription initiation complex Eukaryotic promoter Template DNA strand Initiation Promotersare DNA sequences that designate where transcription initiates -A promoter called a TATA boxis crucial in forming the initiation complex in eukaryotesTranscription factors (TFs): other proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase II to DNA and initiation of transcription transcription initiation complex: completed assembly of TFs & RNA polymerase II bound to a promoter RNA polymerase II unwinds the DNA and synthesis begins at the start point.

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