When the pressure falls below that of the atria blood moves from the atria into

When the pressure falls below that of the atria blood

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When the pressure falls below that of the atria, blood moves from the atria into the ventricles, opening the atrioventricular valves and marking one complete heart cycle. The valves prevent backflow of blood. Failure of the valves to operate properly produces turbulent blood flow within the heart; the resulting heart murmur can often be heard with a stethoscope. Topics for Chapter 20 Be able to describe the neural and hormonal controls that mediate short-term regulation of rising blood pressure. Rising blood pressure makes the arterial walls stretch Stretched arterial walls stimulate baroreceptors (stretch receptor) in aortic and carotid sinuses Activated baroreceptors increased impulses to brain Results in decreased sympathetic activity and increased parasympathetic activity Decreased parasympathetic activity
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FROM THE BOOK Baroreceptors are specialized stretch receptors located within thin areas of blood vessels and heart chambers that respond to the degree of stretch caused by the presence of blood. They send impulses to the cardiovascular center to regulate blood pressure. Vascular baroreceptors are found primarily in sinuses (small cavities) within the aorta and carotid arteries: The aortic sinuses are found in the walls of the ascending aorta just superior to the aortic valve, whereas the carotid sinuses are in the base of the internal carotid arteries. There are also low- pressure baroreceptors located in the walls of the venae cavae and right atrium. When blood pressure increases, the baroreceptors are stretched more tightly and initiate action potentials at a higher rate. At lower blood pressures, the degree of stretch is lower and the rate of firing is slower. When the cardiovascular center in the medulla oblongata receives this input, it triggers a reflex that maintains homeostasis: When blood pressure rises too high, the baroreceptors fire at a higher rate and trigger parasympathetic stimulation of the heart. As a result, cardiac output falls. Sympathetic stimulation of the peripheral arterioles will also decrease, resulting in vasodilation. Combined, these activities cause blood pressure to fall. When blood pressure drops too low, the rate of baroreceptor firing decreases. This will trigger an increase in sympathetic stimulation of the heart, causing cardiac output to increase. It will also trigger sympathetic stimulation of the peripheral vessels, resulting in vasoconstriction. Combined, these activities cause blood pressure to rise. Topics for Chapter 23 Be able to explain the mechanisms of chemical digestion and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. The chemical digestion of starches begins in the mouth and has been reviewed above. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase does the ‘heavy lifting’ for starch and carbohydrate digestion. After amylases break down starch into smaller fragments, the brush border enzyme α-dextrinase starts working on α-dextrin, breaking off one glucose unit at a time. Three brush border enzymes hydrolyze sucrose, lactose, and maltose into monosaccharides. Sucrase splits sucrose into one molecule of fructose and one molecule of
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