meaning "for that". It generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-
generalizable, and not intended to be able to be adapted to other purposes.
- a government official who hears and investigates complaints by private citizens against other officials or
standards exist to help organizations; minimize how their operations (processes
etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); comply with applicable laws,
regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements, and continually improve in the above. ISO 14000 is similar
in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the
product itself. As with ISO 9000, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO
audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at once.
in international trade
, practice of selling goods abroad below cost in order to eliminate a surplus or to gain
on foreign competition, or when goods are unacceptable for the domestic market.
with little or no concern for price or market effect.
Self-reference criterion (SRC
) - Having sold a product successfully in the domestic market a firm may assume that the
product will, without adaptation, also be successful in foreign markets. Frequently this assumption leads to failure. SRC
refers to the assumption that what is suitable for the home market will be suitable for the foreign market and therefore
there is no need to test whether or not the product should be altered.
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)
- Congress attempted to establish comprehensive regulations on how
American political campaigns for Congress and presidency raise money and
the amount and sources of
contributions. This act governs nearly all aspects of federal campaign finance activity, including the four dominant issues:
size of contributions to political campaigns, source of such contributions, public
of campaign financial
information, and public financing of presidential campaigns.
- uses an equity stake in a
to put public pressure on its
It can take any
of several forms:
, publicity campaigns,
, litigation, and negotiations with
It has gained popularity as management compensation at
companies and cash
balances on corporate
Cost benefit analysis
is a comparison of the cost of an activity to its benefits belongs to –
initiative approved a set of labor standards that include the right to a safe working environment, a moratorium on
child labor, a living wage, the right for workers to unionize, and a 48 hour work week.
Companies that want to comply with
SA8000 standards apply for certification through an outside auditor.
are employer promises.
Examples include access to a grievance system and the right to a personnel
evaluation at specified intervals. Enterprise rights are in writing and usually found in the employee handbook.