APA code of conduct sets standards and guidelines for clinical studies Chapter

Apa code of conduct sets standards and guidelines for

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APA code of conduct: sets standards and guidelines for clinical studies Chapter 2: Behavioral Neuroscience Definition/functions of a neuron- basic unit of the nervous system Receives signals from neurons or sensory organs “Summates” input from other neurons Sends signals to other neurons, muscles, or organs 3 types of neurons: sensory, motor, interneuron components of a neuron: axon, dendrites, cell body, myelin sheath Axon: Carries impulses away from cell body Dendrite: Branches that receive signals and transmit to cell body Cell Body: Controls cell metabolism and determines firing Myelin Sheath: Fatty insulation All-or-None Law Principle that says that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus If the threshold potential is exceeded, the nerve or muscle fiber will give a complete response Other than that, if the the threshold potential is not exceeded, there is no response at all Types of neurotransmitters Excitatory Inhibitory
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Endorphins Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory, and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides. Agonist vs. Antagonist An agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell (acts like the neurotransmitter) An antagonist is a chemical or drug that binds to receptors in the brain and prevents an agonist causing a reaction (blocks the binding site for the neurotransmitter) An inverse antagonist not only prevents an agonist from having a reaction on a receptor but causes the opposite response to occur Reuptake/Degradation Reuptake is the process by which the sending neuron reabsorbs neurotransmitters in the synapse This process is used to decrease the action that would be caused by the neurotransmitter Degradation is the process by which an organism begins to lose the ability to function Can be seen in the reduction of normal functions and the breakdown of parts Concept of plasticity/connections in brain Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change and form new connections throughout life The brain can reorganize itself by forming new/different connections between the neurons Concept of pruning The neurons in a newborn’s brain are widely spread out originally, but develops connections very quickly Pruning refers to the method that is used to eliminate extra/unnecessary neurons and synaptic connections in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal transmissions Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) vs. Peripheral Nervous System Central NS: portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
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