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Unformatted text preview:  Dark 6.2    100% 10.2 4 1.8 1.50 65% 9.7 3.5 1.3 1.31 25% 9.0 2.8 0.6 1.05 10% 8.5 2.3 0.1 0.86 2% 7.1 0.9 1.3 0.34 Dilution &amp; pH Review Surviving C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 C 1 = original concentration of the solution, before it gets watered down or diluted. C 2 = final concentration of the solution, after dilution. V 1 = volume about to be diluted V 2 = final volume after dilution By drawing the &quot; X &quot; through the equal sign and filling in the formula with letters of a size permitted by the borders of the &quot; X &quot;, it reminds you that : for all dilution problems C 1 &gt; C 2, and V 1 &lt; V 2 . It makes sense because to dilute, we add water. This increases the volume but lowers concentration. Examples by Type : 1. Easiest: Joe has a 2 g/L solution. He dilutes it and creates 3 L of a 1 g/L solution. How much of the original solution did he dilute? Solution: We are looking for V 1 : C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2x = 1(3) x = 1.5 L 2. Joe has 20 L of a 2 g/L solution. He diluted it, and created 3 L of a 1 g/L solution. How did he make such a solution? We're only going to use part of the 20 L. Remember we have to end up with 3 L after dilution, so not only do we have to start with less than 20 L but also less than 3 L. How much is unknown = V 1 , and it amounts to the same problem as in example 1, but don't use the 20L. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2x = 1(3) x = 1.5 L 3. Joe has 20 L of a 2 g/L solution. To this solution he adds 30 L. What is the final concentration of the solution? If 30 L is added to the 20 L, then the volume about to be diluted, V 1 , is 20 L. And adding 30 L of water to a 20 L solution creates a final volume, V 2 , of 50 L. Our unknown is C 2 . C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2(20) = x(20 + 30) x = 40/50 = 0.80 g/L pH Reminder: pH = log (H + ) Which is more acidic? (H + ) of 1.0 x 108 or 1.0 x 1012 Which is more basic? (H + ) of 1.0 x 106 or 1.0 x 103 Stomach acid has a pH of about 12. What would the H + concentration be around? Between 1 x101 and 1 x102 [H 3 O + ] or [H + ] scientific notation pH 0.1 1 x101 1 0.01 1 x102 2 0.001 1 x103 3 0.0001 1 x104 4 0.00001 1 x105 5 0.000001 1 x106 6 0.0000001 1 x107 7 0.00000001 1 x108 8 0.0000000001 1 x1010 10 0.00000000001 1 x1011 11 As [H + ] gets smaller, scientific notation exponents get MORE NEGATIVE , and pH goes UP As [H + ] gets larger, scientific notation exponents get LESS NEGATIVE , and pH goes DOWN Random Questions Hydrogen peroxide is broken down to water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase. The following data were taken over 5 minutes. What is the rate of enzymatic reaction in mL/min from 2 to 4 minutes? 0.95 O 2 ml/min Data taken to determine the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in a goldfish is given in the table below. Calculate Q 10 for this data. 1.89 If 250 people out of a population of 1,000 are born with sicklecell anemia, how many people in the population will be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous for the sicklecell gene? 500 people In a population of 250 peas, 16% of the peas are homozygous recessive wrinkled and the rest are smooth. What is the frequency of the dominant allele for smooth peas? q = 0.6 There are 2,000 mice living in a field. If 1,000 mice are born each month and 200 mice die each month, what is the per capita growth rate of mice over a month? r max = 0.4...
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 Fall '11
 Boyle
 Biology, Population Ecology, Lefthandedness, Zygosity

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