# Dark 6.2 100 10.2 4 1.8 1.50 65 9.7 3.5 1.3 1.31 25

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Unformatted text preview: -- Dark 6.2 -- -- -- 100% 10.2 4 1.8 1.50 65% 9.7 3.5 1.3 1.31 25% 9.0 2.8 0.6 1.05 10% 8.5 2.3 0.1 0.86 2% 7.1 0.9 -1.3 0.34 Dilution &amp;amp; pH Review Surviving C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 C 1 = original concentration of the solution, before it gets watered down or diluted. C 2 = final concentration of the solution, after dilution. V 1 = volume about to be diluted V 2 = final volume after dilution By drawing the &amp;quot; X &amp;quot; through the equal sign and filling in the formula with letters of a size permitted by the borders of the &amp;quot; X &amp;quot;, it reminds you that : for all dilution problems C 1 &amp;gt; C 2, and V 1 &amp;lt; V 2 . It makes sense because to dilute, we add water. This increases the volume but lowers concentration. Examples by Type : 1. Easiest: Joe has a 2 g/L solution. He dilutes it and creates 3 L of a 1 g/L solution. How much of the original solution did he dilute? Solution: We are looking for V 1 : C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2x = 1(3) x = 1.5 L 2. Joe has 20 L of a 2 g/L solution. He diluted it, and created 3 L of a 1 g/L solution. How did he make such a solution? We're only going to use part of the 20 L. Remember we have to end up with 3 L after dilution, so not only do we have to start with less than 20 L but also less than 3 L. How much is unknown = V 1 , and it amounts to the same problem as in example 1, but don't use the 20L. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2x = 1(3) x = 1.5 L 3. Joe has 20 L of a 2 g/L solution. To this solution he adds 30 L. What is the final concentration of the solution? If 30 L is added to the 20 L, then the volume about to be diluted, V 1 , is 20 L. And adding 30 L of water to a 20 L solution creates a final volume, V 2 , of 50 L. Our unknown is C 2 . C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 2(20) = x(20 + 30) x = 40/50 = 0.80 g/L pH Reminder: pH = -log (H + ) Which is more acidic? (H + ) of 1.0 x 10-8 or 1.0 x 10-12 Which is more basic? (H + ) of 1.0 x 10-6 or 1.0 x 10-3 Stomach acid has a pH of about 1-2. What would the H + concentration be around? Between 1 x10-1 and 1 x10-2 [H 3 O + ] or [H + ] scientific notation pH 0.1 1 x10-1 1 0.01 1 x10-2 2 0.001 1 x10-3 3 0.0001 1 x10-4 4 0.00001 1 x10-5 5 0.000001 1 x10-6 6 0.0000001 1 x10-7 7 0.00000001 1 x10-8 8 0.0000000001 1 x10-10 10 0.00000000001 1 x10-11 11 As [H + ] gets smaller, scientific notation exponents get MORE NEGATIVE , and pH goes UP As [H + ] gets larger, scientific notation exponents get LESS NEGATIVE , and pH goes DOWN Random Questions Hydrogen peroxide is broken down to water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase. The following data were taken over 5 minutes. What is the rate of enzymatic reaction in mL/min from 2 to 4 minutes? 0.95 O 2 ml/min Data taken to determine the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in a goldfish is given in the table below. Calculate Q 10 for this data. 1.89 If 250 people out of a population of 1,000 are born with sickle-cell anemia, how many people in the population will be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous for the sickle-cell gene? 500 people In a population of 250 peas, 16% of the peas are homozygous recessive wrinkled and the rest are smooth. What is the frequency of the dominant allele for smooth peas? q = 0.6 There are 2,000 mice living in a field. If 1,000 mice are born each month and 200 mice die each month, what is the per capita growth rate of mice over a month? r max = 0.4...
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Dark 6.2 100 10.2 4 1.8 1.50 65 9.7 3.5 1.3 1.31 25 9.0 2.8...

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