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Furthermore meta analytic studies of the literature

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Furthermore, meta-analytic studies of the literature have noted that efforts to determine the efficacy of cognitive techniques have been stymied by the inclusion of both cognitive and behavioral elements in treatment. The literature also appears to have focused on the outcome of interventions (e.g., lowered anxiety and depression), not the actual learning outputs that may lead
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Workbook 15 to these outcomes. Finally, given past findings that dysfunctional thoughts may interfere with knowledge acquisition and schema modification, it follows that the initial level of dysfunctional career thinking may also impact the learning of the cognitive reframing skill. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the CTI Workbook in imparting the skill of cognitive reframing to college students. Of additional interest was obtaining information about the process of instructing the skill of cognitive reframing and the efficacy of purely cognitively based techniques. In support of these research goals, it was hypothesized that there would be no significant interaction between experimental group status (i.e., treatment vs. control) and level of dysfunctional career thinking (e.g., high vs. low) over time and the college students’ acquisition of the skill of reframing dysfunctional career thoughts as measured by reframe effectiveness. Method The study method will now be described including participant recruitment, instrumentation, study design and procedure, and rater training and scoring. Participant Recruitment Participants were recruited from students enrolled in five sections of a career development course at a major southeastern university. Each participant provided his or her informed consent ( Appendix A ) to participate in the evaluation project and was not required to participate in the evaluation as part of the class grade . Participants were informed that they were being asked to evaluate a workbook they might use later in the course. Students who did not wish to participate were asked to remain in class and use the time to read for class or complete class assignments. This request was made to maintain the confidentiality of their decision to not participate in the evaluation.
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Workbook 16 Descriptive data on participants’ college, ethnicity, year in school, and sex can be viewed in Table 2 . As would be expected in a career development course, the sample was more undecided in their major than the undergraduate university population as a whole. Furthermore, a proportionally greater number of Social Science majors participated in the evaluation study than in the university at large (22% vs. 10%). The sample was also less diverse than the greater university population with over 81% of participants self-reporting as Caucasian versus 74% of the undergraduate university population. The majority (61%) of the sample was of either sophomore (30%) or senior (31%) class standing. Furthermore, the sample also included proportionally more women than the university population (66% vs. 56%). Finally, participants’
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  • Fall '19
  • Statistical significance, Effect size, cti, James P. Sampson, Reframes

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