c. Since Japan has low cost health insurance and every citizen has healthcare coverage, there is no such thing as a pre-existing condition. Japanese go to the doctor when they need to and medical treatment is provided. (Ikegami, 1991). In the United States, since 2014, and the passing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, the coverage for pre-existing conditions has been guaranteed. (Center, n.d.). Healthcare coverage cannot be denied based on a pre-existing condition. (Center, n.d.). 3. In Japan, the monthly out of pocket expenditure for a citizen for copayments is set at a maximum amount and anything over that maximum amount is reimbursed back to the citizen by the Japanese government. (Ikegami, 1991). The maximum amount established that a Japanese citizen is responsible for is based upon their income level. (Ikegami, 1991). Once a Japanese citizen is considered elderly at age 70 (or 65 if bedridden) and no longer has income from employment, insurance coverage is provided by a pool of funds with contributors from each of the health plans available in Japan. (Ikegami, 1991). In the United States, when an individual has insurance through the Health Insurance Exchange, the plan is based upon anticipated annual income. (Healthcare, n.d.). The individual obtaining insurance
Running Head: TASK 3 5 through the Health Insurance Exchange also has options as far as how much coverage and the premiums and deductibles that will need to be paid. (Healthcare, n.d.). Once an insured is eligible for Medicare, (65 years or older, suffering from End Stage Renal Disease or Lou Gherig’s disease, or have been disabled for 2 years) they are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A if they paid a Medicare tax for the last 10 years, which is hospitalization insurance. (Medicaid.gov, n.d.). Any additional Medicare coverage chosen would have a premium that would have to be paid in order to receive benefits. (Medicaid.gov, n.d.).
Running Head: TASK 3 6 B. References Araujo, Mila. (June 15, 2016). The Balance. H ealth Insurance and Medical Insurance Differences: HMO, PPO, POS, EPO. What’s the difference between HMO, PPO, and POS? Retrieved from ? utm_term=affordable+ppo+health+insurance&utm_content=p1-main-4- title&utm_medium=sem&utm_source=msn_s&utm_campaign=adid-bf7b95be-caee-4384-a2cf- a216b2d92a97-0-ab_msb_ocode- 34462&ad=semD&an=msn_s&am=broad&q=affordable+ppo+health+insurance&o=34462&qsrc= 999&l=sem&askid=bf7b95be-caee-4384-a2cf-a216b2d92a97-0-ab_msb.
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