deployment and use of renewable energy tech nology will make renewable

Deployment and use of renewable energy tech nology

This preview shows page 16 - 18 out of 136 pages.

deployment and use of renewable energy tech- nology will make renewable alternatives more competitive and will reduce externalities. 23. On the demand side , increased energy effi- ciency is crucial for tackling global warming. A large potential for energy efficiency remains untapped, not least in emerging and develop- ing countries where energy efficiency is low. Given their vast current and future consump- tion levels, not least in emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and South Africa, the potential for energy-saving innovation is enormous. For instance, energy performance standards for buildings will become a central policy instrument. This may be combined with transferring good lessons from developed economies and from international technologi- cal knowledge sharing. 24. Changes toward a low-carbon economy will necessarily involve the transformation of in- frastructures . Electricity transmission is par- ticularly relevant for the development and large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies. Sources of renewable energy are generally concentrated in areas located far from areas of electricity consumption, making efficient infrastructural connections between sources and users a crucial challenge. The ab- sence of transmission grids (and credible plans for their establishment) blocks investments in energy transformation systems. This contrib- utes further to the uneven competition be- tween low- and high-carbon technologies. 25. Governments should lead infrastructure transformations due to the public good na- ture and immense upfront investment costs. Transforming and building infrastructures are central to low-carbon development. Incre- mental innovation is possible within existing infrastructures, while disruptive innovation requires significant transformation of infra- structures. Radical innovation will require completely new infrastructures, not the least those for decentralised energy systems. 26. It is necessary to address not only the devel- opment of renewable energy technologies but also the ‘ dismantling ’ of systems for fossil energy technology. The destructive aspect of a green energy system transformation is just as important as the creative aspect. Fossil and renewable energy sources are in direct but un- even and unfair competition. General recommendations 27. Development policy should seek to combine the human development and environmental sustainability objectives through promotion LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 13
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of processes of learning, innovation, and de- velopment. Few organisations have started to bring innovation and low-carbon develop- ment together in policies for system develop- ment . This is what this review seeks to do. 28. Some of the recommendations require a higher level of governance capacity in public organisations. To enhance governance capac-ity may thus be a prerequisite for low-carbon development.
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