Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

C based on zone models 411 for automatic detection

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(c) Based on zone models. 4.1.1 For automatic detection, the input parameters used in the modelling study shall be the same as the properties of the detectors/sprinklers used in the design as well as the layout of the detectors/sprinkler. Automatic detection (i) Response Time Index (RTI) of sprinkler/detector.
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33 (ii) Activation temperature (T act ) of sprinkler/detector. (iii) C-factor for sprinklers. (iv) Optical density at alarm for smoke detectors. (v) Radial distances adopted shall be based on a code-compliant (SS CP 10 (Code of Practice for Installation and Servicing of Electrical Fire Alarm System)/SS CP 52 (Code of Practice For Automatic Fire Sprinkler System)/NFPA/etc) system design. For detection time, the radial distances may be based on first-ring activation of sprinklers/detectors. Where there are no automatic fire detection systems installed, manual/human detection time can be estimated based on smoke layer height reaching 10% of the room height. FSEs are advised to consult SCDF before adopting this approach. Manual/Human detection 4.2 Notification Time (t n ) This is the time required for building management to confirm with DECAM companies whether the fire alarm is a false alarm or a confirmed fire and this time is taken to be 120 seconds. FSE to justify if other timings are adopted. Notification Time 4.3 Pre-movement time (t pre ) Pre-movement time is the time interval between occupants being informed to evacuate and the time in which they begin to travel to a safe location. Refer to Table F-1 in Annex F. Pre-movement time (a) The quantification of pre-movement time is highly dependent on occupant behaviour and fire safety systems in place. The behaviour of escaping occupant depends on the following factors: (i) Building characteristics (i.e. occupancy type, detection, alarm, fire safety management and building layout)
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34 (ii) Occupant characteristics (occupant numbers, alertness and familiarity) (iii) Exposure to fire effluent (b) Annex F presents a more detailed explanation on some of these factors involved in estimating the pre-movement times. Any of the pre-movement times obtained from New Zealand document, C/VM2 2 in Table A6-1 can be used in the egress design and the FSE would need to justify his/her choice. 4.4 Movement time (t trav or t flow ) The time taken by occupants to move to a place of safety is determined by the longer timing of: The time taken to move to the doorway of the exit staircase (eg analysing egress from compartment/floor) or the final exit door at level one (analysing total building evacuation) (t trav ) , or The flow time, (t flow ) (i.e time taken for all the occupants to flow through a restriction, typically a doorway, when queuing is necessary). Movement time (a) Travel time (t trav ) Travel time (i) For horizontal travel, the travel time will be calculated based on the estimated walking speed.
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  • Three '18
  • Dr. Anthony
  • Microelectronics, Active fire protection, Fire protection, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat release rate, FSE

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