Kinseys studies suggested human sexuality far more

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Kinsey’s studies suggested human sexuality far more diverse than commonly assumed MAYBE IT’S MORE COMPLICATED Some societies have more than two genders Gender identity is not always consistent with biological sex Biological females have “passed” as men to do more valued work not available to women There is not a one to one match between gender and biological sex. Gender is largely learned from culture/ society GENDER ROLES & DIFFERENCES Gender roles: Behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as male or female Many societies/ cultures differentiate between men’s and women’s roles Evidence shows that gender roles have more to do with social status than biology GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION Gender roles are learned through gender role socialization Family: Boys and girls may be treated differently Children observe parents enacting gender roles Schools: teachers interact more with boys than girls, different expectations for behavior & achievement Media representations FUNCTIONALISM AND ORDER Gender differences and gendered structures exist to fulfill necessary social functions (e.g. child care) Specialized labor - different roles and tasks for men and women FUNCTIONALISM AND GENDER Talcott Parsons: nuclear family and fixed gender roles perform complementary functions Gendered division of labor tied to biology Critiques: Why have these roles changed so much over time? Socialization vs. biology Other patterns are also functional
CONFLICT THEORY AND GENDER The problem is the gendered division of labor Devalues work done in the home Economic dependence of women - lack resources, lack power Social control FEMINIST THEORY AND GENDER Feminist: the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes Gender structures social relations, and there are power differentials by gender. Work done in the home is devalued in a patriarchal society Solutions: resources, choice, and respect GENDER STRATIFICATION Patriarchy (“Rule of Fathers”) A form of social organization in which men hold primary power and predominate in social and political roles Devaluation of the feminine INTERSECTIONAL THEORISTS Not as simple as gender alone Intersection of gender with race, class, ability, sexual orientation, etc. Some women are more/ less privileged than other women Feminism criticized for not always recognizing this SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM Social relations and interactionism are gendered Gender is not a fixed thing we take with us into our interactions Gender is something people “do” or accomplish through social interactions Society assigns meaning to gender GENDER STRATIFICATION Gender stratification: Unequal distribution of wealth, income, status and power between men and women In the U.S. gender stratification exists in: Employment / income Political power Family life GENDER AND POLITICS
Increased representation of women but huge disparities remain GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT

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