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hurricane cannot circulate. Therefore, in order to form a hurricane, the cluster of thunderstorms mustbe at least 5° N or S of the equator.NotesFor a hurricane to form, it must be at least 5° N or S of the equatorWithout the Coriolis Force, the winds cannot circulate around the low-pressure center.In the image below, no hurricanes will form between the dotted lines.Map of the globe with a red line to indicate the position of the equator; the two dotted lines to indicate the position of 5° N and 5° S. Hurricanes cannot form between the dotted lines.
Lecture 3: Structure and Formation Part 21. Destructive Forces Overview: Storm SurgeDestructive ForcesHurricanes are widely regarded as the most destructive storms on the planet. In the US, hurricanes typically top the weather-related disaster list every year. Katrina (2005) smashed all records by doubling the cost of the 1988 drought and destroying the record for hurricane cost set by Andrew in 1992. Besides cost, the deadliest US natural disaster ever was the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 which claimed an estimated 10,000 lives. Outside of the US, the cost of recovery is smaller but the death toll is significantly higher. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis slammed into Myanmar (Burma) and claimed approximately 140,000 lives.In this lesson, we will focus first on identifying the deadly and destructive parts of the hurricane. Then we will focus on the science behind storm surge.Links to images you saw in the videoBefore and after images from CamileNHC Storm Surge Page (great resource) In the image below, you can see how the shape of the coastline impacts storm surge intensity
NotesStorm SurgeA rise in sea level due primarily to wind-blown waterOnly affects the coastlineDoes not resemble a tidal wave from a tsunamiMade worse with high tideShape of the coastline may enhance the surgeIn recent hurricanes (in the past decade), storm surge has been the deadlies part of the hurricane.Inland FloodingHurricanes can drop 10" to 50+" of rain
Causes widespread damageMade worse in mountainous regions (Hurricane Mitch 1998)Biggest Killer with respect to hurricanes between 1970-1999)High WindsCan gust over 200 mph (rare though)Primarily confined to the eyewallEmbedded TornadoesSome hurricanes spawn dozens while other produce none at alldifficult to distinguish tornado damage from hurricane damageTypically very weak (EF-0 to EF-1 damage)More on Storm Surge (Note: I recorded this long before Hurricane Sandy (2012))
2. Inland Flooding (Freshwater Flooding)Inland Flooding (Freshwater Flooding)If you were to ask anyone, "What is the most deadly part of a hurricane?" the most likely responses