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plan. This theory equips the nurse with a tool (sunrise enabler) and research to justify the importance of culturally competent careStrengthens nurse’s commitment to building relationships with patientsEncourages nurses to first be aware of their own social, cultural, economic, educational, environmental factorsThe theory will only grow in relevance as the nursing world becomes more multicultural(Gonzalo, 2019; Smith & Parker, 2015)25
26Barriers to Implementing TheoryoCulturally competent care is difficult to teach as culture generalities are rarely applicable to all individuals within a culture and may lead to stereotypingoBaseline knowledge is still necessary, but individual culture assessment still required by nursing to improve compliance and health statusoCulture competency assessment tools exist but are difficult to quantify success of educationoCompetence is not gained through a few days or even a few years. Nurses must commit themselves to lifelong learning and development. They must adopt humble and teachable spirits at all times.(Grant & Letzring, 2003)
Parse’s Theory of Humanbecoming27(Smith & Parker, 2015)Nursing is practiced in relationships with individuals, groups, and communities in their process of becoming with the primary concern on patient’s living quality with human dignityEvery patient must be treated as a unique expert on their own healthCentered around three themes: meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence Sciencing humanbecoming is coming to know, an ongoing inquiry to discover and understand the meaning of universal living experiencesEach nurse’s humanbecoming goal is to be in true presence, bearing witness, and being with others in their changing patterns of living quality, without labeling, objectifying, or stereotyping
Application to Current Practice28Humanbecoming 80/20 model (80% of nursing time spent in direct patient care guided by humanbecoming, and 20% spent learning about humanbecoming) implemented on four units in 2007Higher scores of patient and nurse satisfaction, reduced sick time and overtimeStudy in 2009 revealed how the humanbecoming method helps describe the lived experience of fear in the elderly and lays out how to assess and intervene to reduce fear/make use of fear appropriatelyThe ten elderly participants revealed deeper understanding of fear and identified meaning, patterns of relating, and views for the futureEthics education requires the concept of respect for human dignity. Applying method to education is consistent with ethics requisitesNurses equipped to treat patients with basic human dignity and respect, increasing patient satisfaction and enhancing nurse-patient relationship(Baumann, 2009; Bournes & Ferguson-Paré, 2007; Kalb & O'Conner-Von, 2007; Smith & Parker, 2015)
Benefits to Nursing Satisfaction29Bournes and Ferguson-Paré (2007) reported that implementation of humanbecoming model showed an effective basis for nurse training and that both patients and families they appreciated the reverent consideration given them by nurses who had learned