must adhere when making decisions related to hiring and performing other hiring-related activities. When organizations mandate that managers adhere to the company hiring policy when making decisions, the decisions are more consistent from manager to manager. The purpose of policy is to act as a common touchstone for all members of an organization. If all managers look to the same set of policies as a resource, their decisions are bound to be more consistent with one another. A single-use plan is another type of operational plan; as it is designed to deal with a non-recurring occasion or situation, it will only be used one time. A strategic plan is a broad long-term plan that upper management derives from the organization's mission statement; it bears all organizational goals in mind. Middle-level managers enact tactical plans that directly support the strategic plans designed by top-level managers. By its very nature, any kind of policy is a long-term, not short-term, plan. 29. The correct answer is D.Rewarding team accomplishments would be the most effective action to take to improve group cohesiveness. A group is considered to be cohesive if it works cooperatively toward a unified purpose. A cohesive group is more likely to resolve an issue or reach a decision sooner than a non-cohesive group whose members will each be arguing for their own agendas. Rewarding team accomplishments, which must necessarily be achieved through working cooperatively as a cohesive group, would be positively reinforcing group cohesiveness. Rewarding individual accomplishments would tend to have the opposite effect. Tampering with other elements of the team's organization, such as revising its project mission or having team members alternate responsibilities, does not really address the issue at hand and is likely to create a whole new set of difficulties. Disbanding the team would be an extreme last resort. 30. The correct answer is E.According to the Total Quality Management (TQM) definition of a customer, the salesperson is the stereo manufacturer's customer. Total Quality Management broadens the definition of a customer to include any individual within or outside of the organization to whom an employee passes on his or her product or service. The salesperson is the not the stereo manufacturer's supplier, wholesaler, or employee. Nor is the stereo manufacturer the salesperson's customer. 31. The correct answer is D.An employee is least likely to attain a goal that is vague. A goal is a specific organizational objective focused on where the organization wants to be at some future point in time. A goal should have a time frame, be measurable, be specific, and ideally be associated with a reward of some kind. For instance, telling employees to "increase productivity at some point in time" is not likely to be as effective as telling them to "increase productivity by 7% by the end of the fiscal year, in order to receive a 5% bonus." If a goal consists of tasks that are familiar to the employee already, that can only help in his or her effective achievement of that goal.
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