o The other land trust- on ceded lands-had never been used by the state for Hawaiians, despite their beneficiary status. o By the end of 1988, the issue of “sovereignty” was identified with the issue of “nationhood” o The most compelling defense of Hawaiian sovereignty was put to Senator Inouye as an extension of current federal policy regarding Native people controlled by America. o As Native initiative for self-government, Ka Lāhui is the best example of how self-determination can work in practice. Founded in 1987, Ka Lāhui had expanded into a nationwide structure with representative bodies throughout the archipelago by 1993. o Rights to self-determination and self-development follow, including the right to engage freely in traditional activities.
o In 1900: Hawai’i became American property o In 1959: Hawai’i became a state. The vote on statehood included only 2 options (continuation of territorial status or statehood) Women’s Mana and Hawaiian Sovereignty: o Hawaiians are among the most subordinated Natives in the Pacific Islands o The suffering and dispossession that Hawaiians have endured- and continue to endure- have been justified by a racist ideology that clams we are better off as American citizens than we ever were as citizens of our own independent nation of Hawai’i. o Universal suffrage, private property, and public education are among these “rights” as are the trumpeted joys of mass consumption, mass communication, and mass popular culture o By “rights” Americans do not mean Natives controlling their own affairs, holding their land and resources collectively as a people rather than individuals, or learning and transmitting their own Native language, religion and family structure o Ideologically, “rights” talk is part of the larger, greatly obscured historical reality of American colonialism. o For us nationalist Hawaiians, the lesson of statehood is a lesson of loss and despair: the loss of land, of self-government, of language; the despair of political powerlessness, of cultural prostitution, of economic exploitation o The first stage of resistance involves a throwing off, or a peeling apart, of a forced way of behaving. Layers of engineered assimilation begin to come loose in the face of alternatives. o All across the Pacific Islands, and for at least the past 40 years, Natives have been decolonizing their minds o Mana: Mana, in its Hawaiian sense, conveys an understanding that power is more than what the Haole call “charisma,” or personal attraction Leaders possess mana, they embody and display it The presence of a leader with mana presupposes that the people acknowledge mana as an attribute of political leadership Both the people and their leaders understand the link between mana and pono, the traditional Hawaiian value of balance between people, land, and the cosmos In this decolonizing context, mana as an attribute of leadership is a tremendous challenge of the colonial system, which defines political leadership in terms of democratic liberalism, that is, in terms of electoral victory.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 8 pages?
- Fall '16
- Colonialism, Native Americans in the United States, Native Hawaiians