A study published in 1992 demonstrated approximately

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and phosphocreatine. A study published in 1992, demonstrated approximately a 20% increase in total creatine stores in subjects fed 20 g of creatine per day for several days” (Jenkins). For this reason, creatine supplements have become extremely popular among athletes and bodybuilders. The rationale behind creatine is that is increases the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a chief source of energy for the muscles. Since muscle cells require more energy during periods of increased stress and contraction, such as weight training, there is often a shortage of ATP during workouts or athletic activity. To compensate for this, muscle cells keep stores of creatine phosphate, and when needed, the creatine will provide a quick energy source to lengthen the stamina of the muscle cells (University). This increased energy allows for a prolonged period of explosiveness and athletic proficiency, in fact, estimations suggest that Americans spend roughly $14 million every year on creatine supplements for this very reason. However, studies to date have shown that creatine is more effective in power athletes using short, intermittent bursts, such as weight training or football, than in endurance athletes. Several high quality studies have shown an increase in muscle mass with the use of creatine. Overall, the available evidence does suggest that creatine increases lean body mass, strength, and total work (“Creatine”). Like protein, creatine is available in various forms. The most common of these are: creatine monohydrate, creatine citrate, creatine phosphate, and creatine ester. Creatine monohydrate is 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114
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the most basic form of creatine, the composition of which as typically 88% creatine with 12% water. However, compared to other types of creatine, creatine monohydrate is known to have a suitable number of disadvantages; such as: it is dependent on other nutrients for transportation in the body, it is typically the least effective creatine, and is known to cause bloating. Creatine citrate is created by binding citric acid to a creatine molecule. It is extremely water soluble and dissolved rapidly in the body, consequently delivering more creatine to the muscle cells. However, creatine citrate characteristically contains 40% less creatine per serving than monohydrate, and is also more expensive. Creatine phosphate is created when a phosphate molecule binds with creatine. It acts as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the body, which in turn provides more energy than most other creatines. The only known downside to this is that is it on average more expensive than creatine monohydrate and creatine citrate (“Creatine”). Creatine ester is formed by binding an ester molecule to creatine, and was first discovered in the medical center at the University of Nebraska (“Creatine”). This form of creatine is said to be able to penetrate the cell membrane more effectively than other types of creatines, thus providing more energy and improving stores of creatine in the body. However, like creatine citrate and phosphate, creatine ester is also considerably more expensive than monohydrate.
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