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One class were inanimate less related to targetoFound:oPeople less likely to report target when it was a following a semantically related word than an inanimate wordoThe more meaningful it was to the target, the more attention they paid to it oProcess involved an initial glance, followed by a closer look if it seemed to be a possible target – the more time spent looking at an item, the less likely the next item would even receive a glance, Tf caused ABoMeaningful stimuli capture our attentionoBartlet: “effort after meaning”Task Switching-Set= temporary, top down organization in the brain that facilitates some responses, whileinhibiting others in order to achieve a certain goal; also referred to as a ‘mental set’oE.g. when looking for a lost object you tune out sounds that at other times would have attracted attention-Gibsonhad considered it to vague-Woodworthfound sets essential in explaining human behaviour
-Example of a set – “the way an individual often prepares to act before beginning the overteffective action” – like a sprinter-Woodworth:-Many dif kinds of setsoPreparatory sets (sprinter)oExecutive sets (driving)oGoal sets-Task switching= changing from working on one task to working on another; usually studied in situations in which the switch is involuntary -Jersild 1927/Monsell 2003:oAt computer trying to finish essay, get email saying deadline is today to pay fees, annoyed at interruption but message is important, you get bank card, walk to pay and run into friendsoEach task (essay writing, reading email, finding bank card…) requires: a procedural-scheme / task-setoWe exercise intentional control to select and implement the task-sets that are appropriate to our dominant goals, resisting temptations to satisfy other goals-Switch cost= finding that performance declines immediately on switching tasksoE.g. when you go back to write you essay, you cannot pick up smoothly – you may even feel a need to start all over-This may be due to the time required to reset the cognitive system so that behaviours appropriate to the current tasks are engaged, and to prior tasks are inhibited -Young and Monsell 2003:-Given letter number pairs (H,3) – participants asked to perform one of two tasks in each trialoAlphabet arithmetic – add number to letteroPerceptual comparison task – Yes if both contain only curved or only straight lines, No if one doesoParticipants must switch when given cue to do so, and switch cost observed-Arrington and Logan 2004:oExperiment where the participant chooses when to switch: voluntary task switching (just told to do half for each)oShown numbers 1-9: tell even/odd OR greater/less than 5oEven though task switching was voluntary, there was still a cost!oThey also did not switch randomly, they would do a chunk of each, suggesting once they started one task they were reluctant to incur the cost of switching – maybe they would have only done 1 task the whole time if allowed until boredom sets in-Task switching suggests that top-down processes play an important role in regulating our attention