due to variation in socio-demographic factors, work characteristics and economic levels in addition to different organizational resources and policies associated with the other studies (Saini and Singh, 2005; Sultana et al., 2011; Holland et al., 2012 and Semachew et al., 2017). The high prevalence of low job satisfaction among public nurses was explained by Hamid et al.(2014) that nurses working in public sectors were under harsh circumstances and exposed to limited resources as well as searching for doctors, patients and society respects . Also, whether the nurses suffer from a low job satisfaction or not, this depends on their personal, social, and work features (Gardulf et al., 2008). These features may buffer the impact of job demands on job strain, including dissatisfaction. It was therefore crucial to inspect the socio-demographic and work characteristics that could be associated with low job satisfaction of the studied nurses. The present work denied any significant differences between nurses with low job satisfaction versus those with moderate and high satisfaction regarding their socio-demographic characteristics (Table 1). To the end of our knowledge, there are deficient studies to explore the relationship between nurses’ job satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics particularly in countries suffering from nursing shortage including Egypt.
Job Satisfaction among Nurses237However, work characteristics in term of working experience, presence of physician-nurse communication and nurse-nurse communication as well as colleagues, supervisor and organization supports were significantly lower among nurses with low job satisfaction compared to those with moderate and high level of satisfaction (Table 2). Previous studies showed different finding; while some of them conducted in Ethiopia (Semachew et al., 2017), in Italy (Dignani and Toccaceli, 2013) and in Kuwait (Al-Enezi et al., 2009) found that the highest level of nurse satisfaction was related to satisfaction from coworkers and the least satisfaction was from professional opportunities and extrinsic reward, other studies from USA (American Nurses Association, 2005), Lebanon (El-Jardali, 2009), and Jordan (Mrayyan, 2006) showed nurses with higher satisfaction with regard to career development. Our study revealed that nurses lacking colleagues communication were nearly 4 times more prone to low job satisfaction (OR =4.18). Furthermore, those deprived from supervisor support were about 2 times more liable to low job satisfaction (OR =2.32) (Table 3). Previous study conducted on Ethiopian nurses working in public hospital, reported that absence of mutual understanding at work was a significant predictor of low job satisfaction which was in accordance with our result. However, the Ethiopian study found also other predictors as lack of professional commitment, excess work load and working in outpatient clinics (Semachew et al., 2017). Also Bjørk et al. (2007) mentioned that working for a long time in the profession and in a specific unit/ hospital were predictors of higher levels of job satisfaction. Meanwhile, Jayasuriya et