67%(3)2 out of 3 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 79 - 81 out of 88 pages.
Draft International Standard) is produced and circulated for comments andvoting. Based on the results of this round, the final text of theIS(InternationalStandard) is prepared, approved, and published. In areas of great controversy, aCD or DIS may have to go through several versions before acquiring enoughvotes, and the whole process can take years.NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology) is part of the U.S.Department of Commerce. It used to be called the National Bureau of Standards.It issues standards that are mandatory for purchases made by the U.S.Govern-ment, except for those of the Department of Defense, which defines its own stan-dards.Another major player in the standards world isIEEE(Institute of Electricaland Electronics Engineers), the largest professional organization in the world.In addition to publishing scores of journals and running hundreds of conferenceseach year, IEEE has a standardization group that develops standards in the area ofelectrical engineering and computing.IEEE’s 802 committee has standardizedmany kinds of LANs. We will study some of its output later in this book. The ac-tual work is done by a collection of working groups, which are listed in Fig. 1-38.The success rate of the various 802 working groups has been low; having an 802.xnumber is no guarantee of success. Still, the impact of the success stories (espe-cially 802.3 and 802.11) on the industry and the world has been enormous.
80INTRODUCTIONCHAP. 1NumberTopic802.1Overview and architecture of LANs802.2↓Logical link control802.3*Ethernet802.4↓Token bus (was briefly used in manufacturing plants)802.5Token ring (IBM’s entry into the LAN world)802.6↓Dual queue dual bus (early metropolitan area network)802.7↓Technical advisory group on broadband technologies802.8†Technical advisory group on fiber optic technologies802.9↓Isochronous LANs (for real-time applications)802.10↓Virtual LANs and security802.11 *Wireless LANs (WiFi)802.12↓Demand priority (Hewlett-Packard’s AnyLAN)802.13Unlucky number; nobody wanted it802.14↓Cable modems (defunct: an industry consortium got there first)802.15 *Personal area networks (Bluetooth, Zigbee)802.16 *Broadband wireless (WiMAX)802.17Resilient packet ring802.18Technical advisory group on radio regulatory issues802.19Technical advisory group on coexistence of all these standards802.20Mobile broadband wireless (similar to 802.16e)802.21Media independent handoff (for roaming over technologies)802.22Wireless regional area networkFigure 1-38.The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *.The ones marked with↓are hibernating. The one marked with † gave up anddisbanded itself.1.6.3 Who’s Who in the Internet Standards WorldThe worldwide Internet has its own standardization mechanisms, very dif-ferent from those of ITU-T and ISO. The difference can be crudely summed upby saying that the people who come to ITU or ISO standardization meetings wearsuits, while the people who come to Internet standardization meetings wear jeans(except when they meet in San Diego, when they wear shorts and T-shirts).