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Homer is the ancient Greek author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, two poems thatare the central works of ancient Greek literature. In ancient Greece, individuals viewed themselves as uneducated if they had not read each of these literary works. Many believe that Homer was blind and point to the character he wrote about, in The Odyssey, named Demodokos. Many statues depicting the likeness of Homer in museums, show him with curly hair, sightless eyes and a beard.I feel that the Greek philosopher who had the greatest impact, and still does in our contemporary society, is Aristotle. Plato, the founder of the Academy in Athens, was a teacher of Aristotle and considered him one of his best pupils. Aristotle was considered worldly with many various interests such as, physics, metaphysics, zoology, logic, geology, politics, ethics, biology, and linguistics. Aristotle’s emphasis was in logical thinking and he is credited with developing theprinciples of correct reasoning. Aristotle also added a fifth element which he called aether. Aether is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. The other four elements are air, water, earth, and fire. Aristotle is also credited with making practical use of the pinhole camera or camera obscura. Because of Aristotle’s large portfolio of ideas, theories and other contributions, I feel he is the greatest ancient Greek philosopher.ReferencesMcKay, J. P., Hill, B. D., Buckler, J., Crowston, C. H., Weisner-Hanks, M. E., & Perry, J.(2014). A history of western society: From antiquity to the enlightenment (11th ed., Vol. 1). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Take Test: Unit II AssessmentQUESTION 71.Discuss the rise of the Persian Empire. How was it different from previous major empires in the Middle East? How did it gain so much power? What problems did it face?Your response should be at least 300 words in length.In the year 539 B.C. King Cyrus II, founder of the Achaemenid Empire and commonly known as Cyrus the Great, made the decision to enlarge Persia by attacking and conquering surrounding territories. He started this plan by conquering and annexing Babylon. King Cyrus did not fit the mold of the Assyrian rulers before him and became known for his kindness as opposed to the savage leaders that preceded him. One example of his leadership was allowing the Hebrews, who were prisoners in Babylon formore than 50 years, to return to their homeland of Jerusalem rather them make them slaves. He also returned holy items, previously stolen from them, permitted them to reclaim their capital and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem.King Cyrus also permitted the Hebrews to live and worship as they wanted. The Jewish prophet Isaiah called King Cyrus “God’s shepherd” and further stated that, “God would go before him and level the mountains.” King Cyrus’s generosity toward the Jews was not an isolated occasion. He and his successors utilized a leadership strategy of adjustment and compromise when dealing with their new subjects. They participated with surrounding leadership and only intruded, as necessary, in political matters that may question their supreme leadership authority. The communication and sharing of ideas between these parties was such that, some Persian’s embraced their subject’s religious practices as their own.The Persian government, led by King Cyrus, attempted to build-up their surrounding territories economies as opposed to previous leaders who would pillage and destroy local economies to gain more wealth for themselves. The Persians attempted to standardize various things throughout their kingdom. They standardized weights, created official medium of exchange in the form of coins and created a system of rules regulating the actions of citizens. The Persian government enacted 20% taxes on farming and manufacture. They also taxed the religious establishment who beforehand