2013scoboriafisicojepappdkencouraged.doc

When the focus is on the quality of information as

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underlie responding. When the focus is on the quality of information as provided to an interviewer, combining responses is justified. These results show the information gained by an interviewer by attending to the meanings of DK responses. Researchers interested in these issues may wish to keep in mind that the post-clarification accuracy scores are somewhat different than those described in prior research, due to the inclusion of high grain statements about occurrence. The findings illustrate the importance of the social psychological context within which information emerges. Here, participants were interviewed by researchers. The pressure to respond is likely greater in interviews conducted by authoritative investigators. These results indicate a pathway for reducing social pressure, by providing instructions about DK responses that serve to alter beliefs about ideal responding. These results apply most directly to instances in which people report on events that they attended to when witnessing. Future research might examine responding following incidental exposure to events. The degree to which this approach is useful also depends on the degree to which interviewers are willing to sacrifice initial quantity for slightly lower grain information but greater confidence that responses are correct.
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ENCOURAGING AND CLARIFYING DON’T KNOW RESPONSES… 23 References Achieving best evidence in criminal proceedings: Guidance on interviewing victims and witnesses, and guidance on using special measures (2011). Ministry of Justice, UK. Ackil, J. K., & Zaragoza, M. S. (1995). Developmental differences in eyewitness suggestibility and memory for source. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Special Issue: Early Memory, 60 , 57-83. doi: 10.1006/jecp.1995.1031 Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2008). Control over grain size in memory reporting - with and without satisficing knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34 , 1224-1245. doi: 10.1037/a0012938 Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical data analysis, Second edition. Wiley: New York. Beuscher, E., & Roebers, C. M. (2005). Does a warning help children to more accurately remember an event, to resist misleading questions, and to identify unanswerable questions? Experimental Psychology, 52 , 232-241. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169.52.3.232 Bruck, M., Ceci, S. J., & Hembrooke, H. (2002). The nature of children’s true and false narratives. Developmental Review, 22 , 520-554. doi: 10.1016/S0273-2297(02)00006-0 Chrobak, Q. M., & Zaragoza, M. S. (2008). Forcing witnesses to fabricate entire fictitious events leads to freely reported false memories. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15 , 1190-1195. doi: 10.3758/PBR.15.6.1190 Dent, H. R., & Stephenson, G. M. (1979). An experimental study of the effectiveness of different techniques of questioning child witnesses. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 18 , 41-51. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.1979.tb00302.x Evans, J. R., & Fisher, R. (2011). Eyewitness memory: Balancing the accuracy, precision, and quantity of information through metacognitive monitoring and control. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 501-508 . doi: 10.1002/acp.1722 Glucksberg, S., & McCloskey, M. (1981). Decisions about ignorance: Knowing that you don’t know. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 7, 311-325. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.7.5.311 Goldsmith, M., Koriat, A., & Weinberger-Eliezer, A. (2002). Strategic regulation of grain size in
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  • Fall '17
  • Jane Moore
  • Centrifugation, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Fourteen unanswerable questions, dk responses, Alan Scoboria

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