management behaviors. According to the review, time management is most commonly defined by: (a) time analysis, (b) planning, (c) goal setting, (d) prioritizing, (e) scheduling, (f) organizing, and (g) establishing new and improved time habits. The results of the review of time management show that the effective use of time has long been recognized as a crucial factor for success in many different fields and many practical techniques have been devised for improving time management (Puffer, 1989). Given the widespread use and acceptance of the value of time management behaviors (Jex & Elacqua, 1999), it is unfortunate that only a modest amount of empirical research has been conducted. Furthermore, research prior to 1990 tended to focus on measuring the effectiveness of time management training as a unidimensional construct. In general, results from empirical studies have shown that the use of time management behaviors leads to more effective
Time Management 22 performance and that perceived control over time is a very important aspect to time management. Self-reports of time management have been shown to be related to academic achievement, age, and gender (Britton & Tesser, 1991; Lahmers & Zulauf, 2000; Simons & Galotti, 1992). Good time managers appear to prefer planning and organization (Williams et al., 1995). Individuals who have previous time management training also appear to engage more frequently in time management behaviors (Britton & Tesser, 1991; Hellsten & Rogers, 2009; Macan, 1994; 1996; Macan et al., 1990; Orpen, 1993; Simons & Galotti, 1992; Williams et al., 1995; Woolfolk & Woolfolk, 1986). The critique of time management instruments suggests that although more research is needed, the TMB (Macan et al., 1990) and the TMQ scales (Britton & Tesser, 1991) appear to possess the strongest evidence of validity and reliability in measuring general time management skills and behaviors. Future independent research is needed to confirm the psychometric characteristics of the TMB and TMQ scales with a variety of populations and in a cross-cultural manner. Additional research is also required to further develop the theoretical model of time management as many time management programs and instruments have developed atheoretically. Future research should also begin to examine the literature of self-regulation and how this literature may apply to time management. 6. References Adams, G. A., & Jex, S. M. (1997). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Time Management Behavior Scale. Psychological Reports, 80, 225-226. Adams, G. A., & Jex, S. M. (1999). Relationships between time management, control, work- family conflict, and strain. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, (1), 72-77. Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10 (4), 552-559. Alay, S. & Koçak, S. (2002). Validity and reliability of time management questionnaire.
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