for ova parasites bacteria and blood to rule out infection barium enema may

For ova parasites bacteria and blood to rule out

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, for ova, parasites, bacteria, and blood to rule out infection barium enema may reveal colon spasm and tubular appearance of descending colon without evidence of cancers and diverticulosis Lactose intolerance test rules out lactose intolerance (celiac disease) Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy may reveal spastic contractions without evidence of colon cancer or inflammatory bowel disease Rectal biopsy rules out malignancy.
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5. Diverticular Disease and Hemorrhoids Diverticular Disease Anywhere, from the proximal end of the pharynx to the anus Diverticulosis Diverticulitis Diverticular Hemorrhage Hemorrhoids Classification
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Diverticula – an abnormal pouch or sac opening from a hollow organ (as the colon or bladder) Diverticulosis - the presence of diverticula in the colon Diverticulitis - inflammation or infection of a diverticulum of the colon Diverticular Disease - a disorder characterized by diverticulosis or diverticulitis
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Common, affects men and women equally Risk increase with age Environmental and lifestyle factors may play a role in the development of the disease Most common in left colon (70-90%)
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Pathophysiology of Diverticula Associations with diets low in dietary fiber and high in refined carbohydrates. Less bulky stools that retain less water and may alter gastrointestinal transit time; Increase intracolonic pressure and make evacuation of the colonic contents more difficult. Other factors: physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
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Diverticular disease in developed countries is blamed largely on a low fiber diet.
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Diverticular Disease Signs and symptoms 1. Acute Diverticulitis a. Acute mild diverticulitis : moderate lower quadrant pain, low fever, and leukocytosis b . Acute severe diverticulitis : Left lower quadrant pain High fever, chills, hypotension from sepsis , Shock from the release of fecal material from the rupture site Abdominal rigidity from the rupture of diverticula , abscesses, and peritonitis microscopic or massive haemorrhage from rupture of diverticula near a vessel
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2. Chronic diverticulitis intestinal obstruction manifested by: Constipation , ribbonlike stools, intermittent diarrhoea , and abdominal distention Abdominal rigidity and pain , Diminishing or absent bowel sounds Nausea, and vomiting secondary to intestinal obstruction .
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Complications Abscess Peritonitis Obstruction Fistula formation: connection between different organs Hemorrhage Helpful tests barium enema reveals filling diverticula biopsy to rule out malignancy blood studies, elevated ESR
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Xray – Free air, perforation CT scan Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are typically avoided when acute diverticulitis is suspected because of the risk of perforation.
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