4. Positivism a. Human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic factors 2. Psychological Theories a. Psychological Theories i. Theories that attribute delinquent behaviors to personality maladjustment or some unusual cognitive condition 1. Psychoanalytical Theory a. Id, ego, and superego 2. Social Learning Theory a. Learning through modeling others who are criminal b. Sociological Theories 1. The Concentric Zone hypothesis a. Descriptions of different social and demographic characteristics of those inhabiting each zone 2. The Subculture Theory a. Subculture of delinquency
i. A culture within a culture where the use of violence is commonplace and normative 3. The Anomie Theory a. Anomie Theory i. Helplessness, loneliness 4. Labeling Theory a. Labeling i. Labeling stresses the definitions people have of delinquent acts rather than delinquency itself 5. Bonding Theory a. Social control theory i. Stressed processual aspects of youth becoming bonded or socially integrated into the norms of society 6. Agnew’s General Strain Theory a. Strain Theory i. Gap between culturally approved goals and legitimate means of achieving them causes frustration, which leads to criminal behavior 3. Others a. Containment Theory b. Neutralization Theory c. Drift Theory d. Differential Association Theory e. Cultural Transmission Theory f. Differential Reinforcement Theory g. Routine Activities Theory h. Situational Action Theory 4. Models for Dealing with Juvenile Defenders a. Rehab b. Treatment or medical c. JUMP d. Noninterventionist (judicious, radical) e. Due process f. Just deserts/ justice g. Crime control h. Consent i. Mutlisystematic therapy j. BARJ k. NFP l. SOS m. Project Safe neighborhoods n. Opertation tide
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