prevent bones from dislocating Other capsule features include ligaments and

Prevent bones from dislocating other capsule features

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prevent bones from dislocating Other capsule features include ligaments and articular fat pads
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13 Special Features Synovial Membrane – secretes synovial fluid containing slippery hyaluronic acid – brings nutrients to articular cartilage Accessory ligaments – extracapsular ligaments outside joint capsule – intracapsular ligaments within capsule Articular discs or menisci – attached around edges to capsule – allow 2 bones of different shape to fit tightly – increase stability of knee - torn cartilage Bursae = saclike structures between structures – skin/bone or tendon/bone or ligament/bone 14 Sprain versus Strain Sprain – twisting of joint that stretches or tears ligaments – may damage nearby blood vessels, muscles or tendons – swelling & hemorrhage from blood vessels – ankle is frequently sprained Strain – generally less serious injury – overstretched or partially torn muscle 15 Bursae and Tendon Sheaths Bursae – fluid-filled saclike extensions of the joint capsule – reduce friction between moving structures skin rubs over bone tendon rubs over bone Tendon sheaths – tubelike bursae that wrap around tendons at wrist and ankle where many tendons come together in a confined space Bursitis – chronic inflammation of a bursa 16 TYPES OF MOVEMENT AT SYNOVIAL JOINTS Gliding Angular movements – Flexion/extension/hyperextension Lateral flexion – Abduction/adduction – Circumduction Rotation Special movements – Elevation/depression – Protraction/retraction – Inversion/eversion Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion – Pronation/supination – Opposition
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17 Gliding (Linear) Movements Gliding movements occur when relatively flat bone surfaces move back and forth or side to side with respect to one another In gliding joints there is no significant alteration of the angle between the bones Occur at carpal and plantar joints 18 Flexion, Extension & Hyperextension Flexion - decrease in the angle between articulating bones Extension - increase in the angle between articulating bones Hyperextension - continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position 19 Abduction and Adduction Abduction - movement of a bone away from the midline Adduction - movement of a bone toward the midline 20 Circumduction Movement of a distal end of a body part in a circle Occurs at ball and socket, saddle and condyloid joints
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21 Rotation Bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis – medial rotation is turning of
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