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The expectancy theory of motivation can be seen as the "what's in it for me" view of behavior. The expectancy theory states that employees determine in advance what the outcomeswill be and whether alternate possible outcomes are preferable. According to this theory, employees base their motivation on 3 questions: 1) Will their efforts likely be effective? 2) Will being effective bring good outcomes for them? 3) Are these good outcomes sufficiently attractive?This model is prescriptive in nature and includes 5 decision making styles of tell, sell, consult, join, and delegate.•The style is based on the answers to three questions: is all the information available, is acceptance necessary, can the group make a good decision. This model is prescripive in nature and includes 5 decision making styles of tell, sell, consult, join, and delegate.•The style is based on the answers to three questions: is all the information available, is acceptance necessary, can the group make a good decision.EQUITYTHEORY- people will compare the inputs they bring to a job with the outcomes they receive as compared to other employees in comparable jobs. QUANTITATIVE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT- born from research conducted during World War II. Its approach to management involves the use of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations to aid in managerial decision-making processes.CUSTOMER-FOCUSED QUALITY SCHOOL OF MGMTstrives to continuously improve performance to deliver high quality goods or services to the marketplace. HAWTHORNE STUDIES -Elton Mayobecomes the first to question the behavioral assumptions of scientific management. The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity. The Hawthorne studies demonstrated that an increase in productivity is a direct result of a worker-friendly supervisory system. Workers' productivity improved when they were given privileges by supervisors. The Hawthorne studies actually refuted the classical management theory, which focused on the single best way to perform and manage tasks. Interestingly, the first study showed that worker productivity actually increased as lighting levels decreased up until the point where workers could no longer see. This study showed that it was more than just working conditions alone that affected worker productivity. The Hawthorne studies actually concluded that social needs of workers, such as being regarded and being afforded privileges, are a primary consideration.The behavioral approach to management, which revolves around human relations, emphasizes treatment of employees over output or performance. The behavioral approach is considered to have started with the Hawthorne Studies.