Politically motivated third constantine founded the

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politically motivated. Third, Constantine founded the city of Constantinople, which can be seenas a symbolic beginning of the Byzantine Empire, the name that historians give to thecontinuation of the Roman Empire in the East. Constantine inaugurated a model of Christiankingship in which the king receives his authority to rule directly from God, not from aninstitution such as the church. Constantine inspired the growth of a Christian devotion to theRoman state as an institution willed by God. Henceforth, Christians demonstrated theirpatriotism by holding public office and serving in the army.2.In a positive sense it reflected a deepened awareness of civic responsibility. To Christians likeEusebius, it seemed logical that Christians should not flee from the world but should seek toexercise power on behalf of the church and the gospel. New patriotism and civic involvementprovided an answer to pagan critics who had accused Christians of shirking their public dutieswhile enjoying the benefits and protection of the Roman Empire. On the negative side,Christianity’s alliance with the state created some problems, too. Emperors were alwaystempted to overstep their limits and intervene in church affairs. Moral responsibility for theactions of a supposedly Christian state exposed Christians to new test of their consciences.Another issue was the possible corruption of the church. Wealth and political influencethreatened the integrity of the church’s government. Bishops were tempted to switch from onecity to another in the hope of increasing their power and influence, and church laws against thispractice were widely ignored. There was also a growing tendency to equate Christianity with thecivilization of the Roman Empire, when in fact many Christians already lived outside of theempire. Constantine’s conversion, for instance, exposed Persian Christians across the easternborder to persecution as suspected traitors. Finally, there was the ominous beginning of religiouscoercion, as the institutional church used its privileged position within the state to persecuteheretics and unbelievers. Under the Christian emperors, Jews would gradually lose many of thelegal protections and exemptions they had enjoyed under the pagan emperors.3.Arius taught that only God the Father could be called God in the full sense of the word. Only theFather could be said to be without beginning; all else had a beginning, including the Son, or theWord. The Son was a “second-class” god who was necessary in order to be the link between thetruly transcendent God and the rest of the universe, both in creating the world and in redeemingit. Since the transcendent God could not interact directly with the world in order to redeem it,redemption would be the mission of a subordinate divine being, the Son or Word. Arius’ criticsstrongly objected to this teaching because it turned the Son of God into a being so much lessthan God as to be virtually a creature himself. The heart of the Bible’s teaching is that in Christ

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Chapter 7 / Exercise 113
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
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Term
Fall
Professor
Holleyman
Tags
Christianity, The Bible, Jesus christ, bishops, Eastern Christianity
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 7 / Exercise 113
Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey
Johnson/Mowry
Expert Verified

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