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g1840g1873g1865g1854g1857g1870g1867g1858g1859g1870g1857g1857g1866g1868g1870g1867g1862g1857g1855g1872g1871g1875g1861g1872g1860g1864g1857g1859g1853g1864g1861g1871g1871g1873g1857g1871g1846g1867g1872g1853g1864g1866g1873g1865g1854g1857g1870g1867g1858experiencedg1859g1870g1857g1857g1866g1868g1870g1867g1862g1857g1855g1872g1871g340418121g1876100%g3406 15%From the calculation of available data that represented contractors, 15 percent of the reported green projects experienced any litigation, alternative dispute resolution, informal resolution procedures or any other adversarial proceedings pertaining to the green aspect of the projects. Using the total number of green projects, architects and contractors were involved and the total number of green projects that experienced any legal issue, confidence intervals have been calculated as shown in Table 6.1 to estimate the chances of architects and contractors to experience legal issues within the sample of green projects that experience issues. Table 6.1.95% Confidence Interval of Architects and Contractors to Experience Legal Issues Organization Type Total Number of Green Projects Number Green Projects with Issues Confidence Interval Lower Limit Upper Limit Architects 334 44 10% 17% Contractors 121 18 9% 21% 6.4 Projects delivery methods used in green projects with issues Information on project delivery methods was only collected on green projects that experienced issues. From Fig. 5.8, it can be seen that conventional Design-Bid-Build method was most frequently encountered on green projects with issues at 39 percent. The second most encountered project delivery method with issues was Design-Build at 32 percent. These two project delivery methods accounted for 71 percent of the green
130 projects with issues. Recently Construction Manager at Risk (CMAR) has been gaining popularity as a project delivery method (Huang 2011) and it was encountered on nine percent of the projects. Integrated project delivery (IPD) which is the newest of the project delivery methods (Winstanley 2011) accounted for six percent of the projects. 6.5 Contract types used in green projects with issue Information on contract type was only collected on green projects that experienced issues. From Fig. 5.9, it can be seen that the guaranteed maximum price (GMP) contract type that was used for the majority of green projects with issues at 32 percent. The lump sum contract type was the second most preferred contracting type at 26 percent. The remaining two contract types – unit price and cost plus seem to be almost equally preferred for use on green projects at 21 percent and 19 percent respectively. 6.6 Confidence interval calculation of green projects to experience any legal issues based on three different variables Section 5.3 provides various descriptive statistics of green projects with issues, like type of the project, type of project delivery method, and type of contract. Using this data, this section calculates the confidence interval based on number of projects for each variable.
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Wind, Green building, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design