a particular situation will be for all those affected. If its consequences bring more net good than those of any alternative course of action, then this action is the right one and the one we should perform.SIX POINTS ABOUT UTILITARIANISMFirst, when deciding which action will produce the greatest happiness, we must consider unhappiness or pain as well as happiness.Second, actions affect people to different degrees.Third, because utilitarians evaluate actions according to their consequences and because actions produce different results in different circumstances, almost anything might, in principle, be morally right in some particular situation.Fourth, utilitarians wish to maximize happiness not simply immediately but in the long run as well.Fifth, utilitarians acknowledge that we often do not know with certainty what the future consequences of our actions will be.Finally, when choosing among possible actions, utilitarianism does not require us to disregard our own pleasure.UTILITARIANISM IN AN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTFirst, utilitarianism provides a clear and straightforward basis for formulating and testing policies.By utilitarian standards, an organizational policy, decision, or action is good if it promotes the general welfare more than any other alternative.Second, utilitarianism provides an objective and attractive way of resolving conflicts of self-interest.Third,utilitarianism provides a flexible, result-oriented approach to moral decision making.CRITICAL INQUIRIES OF UTILITARIANISMUtilitarianism instructs us to maximize happiness, but in difficult cases we may be very uncertain about the likely results of the alternative courses of action open to us.Like egoism, utilitarianism focuses on the results of an action, not on the character of the action itself. It is objectionable only when it results in less happiness than could otherwise have been brought about.
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