Payments for ecosystem services or ecotourism trophy

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payments for ecosystem services or ecotourism, trophy hunting is also riddled by problems such as lack of local regulation, rent-seeking and corruption, which can derail such projects. Trophy hunting therefore has mixed results, with a variety of factors determining its success or failure. This pragmatic approach to conservation clashes frequently with the animal rights philosophies embedded within the wildlife conservation debate. To further complicate matters, critics conflate subsistence with sport hunting; these are embedded in different cultural contexts, and need to be evaluated through separate socio-political and economic frames. One must not forget that the vociferous support of urban Western animal enthusiasts and conservationists has real consequences far away (from their homes) in rural Africa where animals and people live in close proximity with each other. An undue focus on issues such as trophy hunting can take away from real problems such as conflict as well as widespread habitat loss and degradation. The latter are enabled by the massive land grabs perpetrated by multinational companies on the continent. The ongoing trophy hunting and animal rights debates as well as the conservation politics surrounding large charismatic species have been elements of a long-term, white-dominated game that is also indicative of a distinct colonial hangover reminiscent of the ‘Scramble for Africa’, that once again ignores African voices and ground realities.
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19 | Page 9004418746 [email protected] AGRICULTURE 25. Loan waivers schemes are not helpful for farmers’ welfare and will not be beneficial in the long run, government should rather focus on infrastructural set up and improving farmers’ access to institutional credit. Discuss A major proportion of farmers remain outside the ambit of a policy of a subsidised rate of interest, and, for that matter, of loan waiver schemes announced by respective State governments. In other words, this sop provides relief to the relatively better off and lesser-in-number medium and large farmers without having much impact on their income and consumption. This anomaly can be rectified only if the credit market is expanded to include agricultural labourers, marginal and small land holders. It is, therefore, important to revisit the credit policy with a focus on the outreach of banks and financial inclusion. The government along with the farmers’ lobby should desist from clamouring for loan waivers as it provides instant temporary relief from debt but largely fails to contribute to farmers’ welfare in the long run. To what extent this relief measure can help bring farmers out of indebtedness and distress remains a question. This is because farmers’ loan requirement is for non-agricultural purposes as well, and often goes up at the time of calamity when the state offers minimal help. If governments
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