to any other cultural standards is called: cultural relativism. Lesson 4 Chapter 4 Human Nature: Nature vs. Nurture page 101 o The ongoing discussion of the respective roles of genetics and socialization in determining individual behaviors and traits. Nature - Sociobiologists, some psychologists, and other natural sciences argue behavioral traits can be explained by genetics. Nurture – sociologists and others in social sciences argue that human behavior is learned and shaped through social interaction. Both are correct. o VanGoozen et al. 1994 – study of testosterone. o Stephen W. Anderson 1999 – studied moral and social development in people with brain injuries. Anderson hypothesized that there is a crucial period in brain development when people require the capacity for moral reasoning.
o There is a complex relationship between nature and nurture; either one alone is insufficient. The Process of Socialization : Socialization – pag 101 & 102 – a twofold process of by which society, culture, or group teaches individuals to become functioning members and also individuals learning and internalizing the values, beliefs and norms of our social group, by which we become a functioning member of society. o Two main Goals : 1. Teaches members the skills necessary to satisfy basic human needs and to defend themselves against danger. 2. Teaches individuals the norms, values, and beliefs associated with their culture. Social Isolation – Page 102 & 103 o German Emperor Fredrick II in the 13 th century would conduct experiments to see of humans would return to their “natural and perfect” state as depicted in the biblical garden of Eden – they would simply parish. Feral children – children who have had little human contact and may have lived in social isolation from a young age. o Kingsley Davis – 1940 – studied several cases of feral children to better understand the relationship between human development and socialization. Isabelle, in the 1930s was sequestered with her deaf, mute mother in a small room in OH. Isabell never learned to speak, she communicated with low, croaking sounds. When found, she had failed to develop like a normal child, and was described as primitive and bizarre. She was able to catch up with her peers with intensive remedial socialization. The socialization process begins in infancy and is especially productive once a child begins to understand and use language. Theories of Self – page 104 Having a sense of one’s self is perhaps the most fundamental of all human experiences. 17 th century philosopher – Rene Descartes “I think, therefore I am” - we process a consciousness about ourselves. Consciousness is at the core of humanness o Self – the individuals conscious, reflective experience of a personal identity separate and distinct from other individuals.
Our experience of a distinct, real, personal identity that is separate of others.
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