In this paper I define prejudice as the possession of more negative or less

In this paper i define prejudice as the possession of

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. In this paper, I define prejudice as the possession of more negative (or, less positive) cognitive, affective, or behavioral tendencies towards outgroups, than to ingroups (for similar definition, see Greenwald & Pettigrew, 2014). While prejudice is a complex phenomenon that clearly requires analysis at many levels (e.g. cultural, intergroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal), this paper will focus on the types of processes that are commonly studied in embodied cognition—specifically, interactions between brain, body, and physical environment. To better orient the current reader, research that is representative of this area includes (but is not limited to) the role of behavioral coordination
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 3 between social agents in generating rapport (Marsh et al., 2009), the effects of bodily cues during social judgments, such as emotion recognition (Niedenthal et al., 2005), and the interplay between bodily and environmental constraints in social judgments (Cesario, Plaks, Hagiwara, Navarrete, & Higgins, 2010). This paper is divided into three, main sections. First, this paper will look at how an embodied approach provides insights into the paradigm of intergroup contact. The second section will focus on past and current frameworks that examine how and when embodied states affect judgments of outgroups. In conclusion, the third part will examine the interplay between brain, body, and environment in prejudice, by examining how affordances affect social judgments. Intergroup Contact Social psychologists have long acknowledged the importance of intergroup contact in prejudice reduction (e.g. Allport, 1954). Indeed, in the present day, intergroup contact remains one of the most widely-accepted strategies for reducing prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). While early studies often examined the conditions that moderate positive intergroup effects (e.g. type of situation), a focus on the mediating factors of intergroup contact— “ how does intergroup contact work?”—have also received considerable interest, in recent years (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008). In this domain, previous research has frequently proposed the importance of cognitively- oriented mediators of prejudice, such as the reduction of stereotypes, and changes in social categorization processes (e.g. common group identification, recategorization of social categories). However, a recent meta-analysis of more than 500 studies found that two affective factors— anxiety reduction and increases in empathy —were primarily responsible for the positive effects of intergroup contact on prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008).
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 4 In the below sections, I focus on how an embodied approach may provide insights into why affective factors play a central role in intergroup contact, rather than a peripheral one, as suggested by cognitive approaches. These embodied approaches are diverse, in nature, encompassing a wide variety of principles. To do so, all place an emphasis on the role of concrete, sensorimotor processes that are inherent within intergroup contact—examples including the processing of sensory information (e.g. nonverbal behavior), the unconscious
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