Thus for motivated behavior to occur on the part of

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Thus, for motivated behavior to occur on the part of any individual, three conditions must be met, which are as follows: #38
First, the effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero. Second, the performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. Third, the sum of the valences for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. Expectancy theory maintains that when all of these conditions are met, the individual is motivated to expand effort. The expectancy theory also has several other important practical implications, which managers should keep in mind. The managers can perform the following activities in relation to this - Determine what outcomes employees prefer. Define, communicate and clarify the level of performance that is desired. Establish attainable performance goals. Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement. Practical Applicability of Expectancy Theory If a manager wishes to motivate his employees for increased and better performance, then he has to make sure whether the reward system is highly supportive to hard work or high quality. The manager will particularly see that the specific system, as applicable in their case, is communicated to them, so as to make them feel confident that their energized efforts will be rewarded. Another important point, which should not be ignored by the manger, is that rewards must correspond to the varying preferences of an individual employee. In conclusion, no doubt 'expectancy' theory has gained much popularity with theorists, but much more work still needs to be put in, before it can be accepted for use as an effective instrument of explanation of 'motivation' with all its implications. The Porter-Lawer Extension Porter and Lawler have proposed an interesting extension to the expectancy theory. The human relationists assumed that employee satisfaction causes good performance but research has not supported such relationship. Porter and Lawler suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between satisfaction and performance but that it goes in the opposite direction, that is, superior performance can lead to satisfaction. Porter-Lawler Model First, an individual's initial effort is influenced by his perception regarding the value of reward and the likelihood that the effort will yield a reward. The probability that increased effort will lead to improved performance is affected by an individual's traits, abilities and perception of his role in an organization. The model also distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Finally, the Porter-Lawler model borrows from equity theory the idea that the employee's satisfaction depends on the perceived equity of the rewards relative to the 'effort expended and the level of performance attained.

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