Thus, for motivated behavior to occur on the part of any individual, three conditions must be met, which are asfollows:#38
First, the effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero.Second, the performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. Third, the sum of the valences for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero.Expectancy theory maintains that when all of these conditions are met, the individual is motivated to expand effort. Theexpectancy theory also has several other important practical implications, which managers should keep in mind. Themanagers can perform the following activities in relation to this -Determine what outcomes employees prefer.Define, communicate and clarify the level of performance that is desired.Establish attainable performance goals.Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement.Practical Applicability of Expectancy TheoryIf a manager wishes tomotivate his employees for increased and better performance, then he has to make surewhether the reward system is highly supportive to hard work or high quality. The manager will particularly see that thespecific system, as applicable in their case, is communicated to them, so as to make them feel confident that theirenergized efforts will be rewarded. Another important point, which should not be ignored by the manger, is that rewards must correspond to thevarying preferences of an individual employee.In conclusion, no doubt 'expectancy' theory has gained much popularity with theorists, but much more work stillneeds to be put in, before it can be accepted for use as an effective instrument of explanation of 'motivation' with all itsimplications. The Porter-Lawer Extension Porter and Lawler have proposed an interesting extension to the expectancy theory. The human relationists assumedthat employee satisfaction causes good performance but research has not supported such relationship. Porter andLawler suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between satisfaction and performance but that it goes in theopposite direction, that is, superior performance can lead to satisfaction.Porter-Lawler ModelFirst, an individual's initial effort is influenced by his perception regarding the value of reward and the likelihood that theeffort will yield a reward. The probability that increased effort will lead to improved performance is affected by anindividual's traits, abilities and perception of his role in an organization. The model also distinguishes between intrinsicand extrinsic rewards. Finally, the Porter-Lawler model borrows from equity theory the idea that the employee'ssatisfaction depends on the perceived equity of the rewards relative to the 'effort expended and the level ofperformance attained.