Pursed lip breathing involves deep inspiration and

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-pursed-lip breathing: involves deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse. -diaphragmatic breathing: more difficult; requires client to relax intercostal and accessory respiratory muscles while taking deep inspirations; often used with pursed-lip breathing technique Sputum Characteristics: White: obstruction of lungs, edema Yellow/Green: bacterial infection Streaked with Blood: inflammation of bronchi, lung cancer Frothy Pink: pulmonary edema **Note any changes in color throughout the day, if it becomes darker with coughing, if there is an odor, the consistency, and how much blood (if any) is present... Incentive Spirometer: encourages voluntary deep breathing; prevents or treats atelectasis; for postoperative/bedridden patients; used at least 10 times every 1-2 hours Review ventilation and oxygenation diagnostic studies (p. 925) Describe nursing interventions used to lessen the effects of acute respiratory illnesses (p.930) Review placement of chest tubes for pneumothorax and hemothorax (p. 951 picture) Review factors affecting oxygenation (physiological, developmental, lifestyle, environmental) (p. 912) Identify alterations in respiratory functioning (p.916) -Hyperventilation: state of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate carbon dioxide; caused by anxiety, infections, drugs, acid-base imbalance, hypoxia r/t embolus or shock, fever -Hypoventilation: occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body’s oxygen needs; caused by administration of excessive oxygen in COPD; S/S: mental status changes, dysrhythmias, potential cardiac arrest -Hypoxia: inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level; Causes include decreased hemoglobin and lowered oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, diminished concentration of inspired oxygen (high altitudes), inability of the tissues to extract oxygen from the blood (cyanide poisoning), decreased diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood (pneumonia), poor tissue perfusion with oxygenated blood (shock), impaired ventilation (multiple rib fractures and chest trauma); S/S: apprehension, restlessness, inability to concentrate, declining LOC, dizziness, and behavioral changes, increased pulse, increased rate and depth of RR, unable to lie down, appears tired Chapter 41 Fluid and Electrolytes/Replacement Therapies
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Skills Test 3 Autologous transfusion : aka autotransfusion, the collection and reinfusion of a client’s own blood, can be obtained by preoperative donation up to 5 weeks before the planned surgery, safer for the patient because they decrease the risk of complications such as mismatched blood and exposure to blood-borne infectious agents Biopatch : commercially prepared antimicrobial dressing (the little circle that goes over a central line) Central Line : Catheter inserted into a large vein (jugular, subclavian, femoral) for IV access Declotting: procedure/medications used to re-establish patency to an occluded central line Dehydration : excessive fluid loss Edema
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