Moritella viscosa antigens did not induce protection in turbot but did lead to

Moritella viscosa antigens did not induce protection

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Moritella viscosa antigens, did not induce protection in turbot, but did lead to some intra-abdominal adhesions (Bjornsdottir et ai, 2004). Photobacteriaceae representative Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida Much eff'ort has been expended on vaccine development, with recent research high- Hghting major antigenic proteins of 7kDa and 45kDa (Hirono et ai, 1997b). Programmes have included the use of passive immunisation (Fukuda and Kusuda, 1981a), which is of dubious practical value, the more conventional approach of using formalin-inactivated whole-cell preparations (Kusuda and Fukuda, 1980; Fukuda and Kusuda, 1981b; Afonso et ai, 2005) and the more modern approaches of genetic engineering. Of relevance, the salinity of the growth medium composition appears to have an effect on the subsequent immune response after vaccination, with 2.5% (w/v) rather than 0.5% NaCl being the more effective (Nitzan et ai, 2004). Bacteriological media containing peptones, yeast extract and salt led to the synthesis of a wider range of cellular components, including novel compounds of ~14 and ~21.3kDa, than those produced in more in v/v6>-type conditions. These compounds were recognised by post-disease sea bass serum (Bakopoulos et ai, 2003a). It was demonstrated that administration of a formalin-inactivated preparation in Freund's complete adjuvant by i.p. injection induced agglutinating antibodies in yellowtail. Thus, titres of 1:256- 1:2,048 were achieved 5 weeks after vaccination (Kusuda and Fukuda, 1980). Vac- cination enhances the nitric oxide response, i.e the production of reactive nitrogen intermediates with their antimicrobial activities, to infection with the pathogen, and is correlated with the level of protection (Acosta et ai, 2005). Further work, using a variety of vaccines and application methods, demonstrated conclusively that fish could be protected against subsequent infection by Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida, although this has been refuted by some workers (e.g. Hamaguchi and Kusuda, 1989). Toxoid-enriched whole cells appHed by immersion led to a low-antibody response and a RPS of 37-41% in sea bream (Magarinos et ai, 1994c). An improved RPS of >60% after 35 days resulted from use of an LPS-mixed, chloroform-killed, whole-cell vaccine (Kawakami et ai, 1997). Using formahn-inactivated cells with or without FCA and a range of application methods—namely i.p. injection, 5-7 sec spray, hyperosmotic infiltration and oral uptake via food—Fukuda and Kusuda (1981b) reported encouraging results within 21 days following artificial challenge with Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida. The best results, conferring 100% protection to the fish, were obtained by use of i.p. injection or by spraying. The titre of agglutinating
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Control 371 antibodies was measured at between 1:4 and 1:128. A subsequent study by these authors has pointed to the value of vaccinating with sub-cellular components, not- ably bacterial LPS (Fukuda and Kusuda, 1982). In this connection, a whole-cell vaccine in combination with ECPs was used more successfully than a commercial product by immersion for 1 h and i.p. injection in sea bass (Bakopoulos et al, 2003).
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