exam_2012-fall-2-answers

Cholestyramine binds warfarin in the gut to limit its

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Cholestyramine: binds warfarin in the gut to limit its absorption (a physicochemical interaction) Colchicine: produces g.i. toxicity/damage affecting absorption of other drugs Opiates (such as morphine): decrease rate of gastric emptying, slowing absorption of a second drug Disulfuram: inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. 21. Briefly list factors that affect compliance with physician’s instructions (provide four of five) ( 2 marks ) 1. Duration of treatment: There is lowered compliance for drugs that must be taken for a long time. 2. Complexity of the dosing regimen (inconvenience): Ameliorated somewhat by marketing of pharmaceutical mixtures (eg. glucocorticoid and β -adrenoceptor agonist administered in one dose for asthma), but this results in loss of therapeutic flexibility. 3. Patient’s perception of the seriousness of the disease and of the importance and efficacy of treatment. 4. Side effects of therapy, if serious, tend to decrease compliance. 5. Continuity and ease of contact with physician.
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22. A tumour contains 10 15 cells. After one round of chemotherapy there are 10 11 cells left. How many cells will be left after the second round of therapy? How many cells will be left after a third round of therapy? (0.5 mark ) 10 7 after the second round and 10 3 after the third. 23. In the 20 th century the increases in women’s cancer rates lagged about 20-30 years behind the men’s increases. Why? ( 1 mark ) Before World War II it was socially unacceptable for women to smoke. Rates of smoking among men started peaking during/after WWI while for women it was during/after WWII. Men thus had a 20-30 year head start on women in terms of getting cancer. 24. Describe the Ames test for determining the carcinogenicities of compounds. What has to be added to the test to increase the likelihood that the experimenter will not missclassify possible mutagens as safe (i.e., to minimize the possibility of false negatives)? ( 2 marks ) A strain of Salmonella bacteria is unable to synthesize the amino acid histidine, because of an inactive synthetic enzyme, and must take it up from its environment in order to survive. If these bacteria are exposed to a mutagen, a few bacteria will randomly undergo a mutation (a back mutation) that corrects the defective enzyme, thus allowing these bacteria to once again synthesize histidine. If bacteria grow on an Ames test, the compound is probably a mutagen. The assumption is made that if a compound is mutagenic, it is also carcinogenic. Liver extract is added to the Ames test. This results in the metabolism of compounds that may not be mutagenic in their parent form, but whose metabolites are mutagenic.
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  • Spring '08
  • MIHIC
  • Pharmacology, DNA, following statements, Adverse drug reaction, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

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