Language commonality and physical features matters as

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Language commonality and physical features matters as well. Germanic tribal legacy They would rather die than become half Roman. German ancestors suffered and worked to create Germany. Thanked ancestors for propogating the idea of nationalism and identity. Otto von Bismarck Appointed by King Wilhelm, Otto von Bismarck became chancellor of Germany in 1862. “Blood and Iron” agenda Otto von Bismarck had a “blood and iron” agenda in which he expanded the Prussian army to become Europe’s best. He defeated Denmark, Austria, and France. Unification under the “Second Reich” Kaiser Wilhelm's declared Prussia (excluding Austria and Switzerland) as the "Second Reich" (the first being the Holy Roman Empire). This signaled a shift from the German nation as an idea to the German nation as a reality. Alsace-Lorraine Following the Franco-Prussian war of 1871, France had to concede Alsace-Lorraine as a settlement to end the war. France was forced to concede Alsace-Lorraine with their loss of the Franco-Prussian war. German's justified their conquer by arguing that the people who lived there spoke German. Ernest Renan Renan’s seminal 1882 address, “What is a Nation?” cut down Germanic Nationalism. In doing so, he calls into question what composes a modern state. He argues that the formation of statehood begin with the downfall of the Roman Empire. Nomadic tribes took over power, adopted Latin and Christianity, married the Latin women, and lent their names to regions (France=franks, Lombards= Lombardi, etc); thus forming a mold for natural identifications. He highlights the fact that these settlements are completely arbitrary; there is nothing eternal about them. He points to the Partition of Verdun as evidence of this arbitrary line drawing. Partition of Verdun Charlemagne's grandsons Alsace-Lorraine was formed from Charlemagnes grandsons having a dispute on the distribution of land amongst the two of them. In the end, the two decided to split the land among the Rhine river, hence the separation from Alsace-Lorraine from the rest of France 11
Who? What? Where? When? Why? (Why is this significant?) Necessity of “historical error” “Obligated already to have forgotten” the corrosive memory of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Huguenots or the Midi massacre. Renan argues that one bust accept (or ignore) a certain amount of historical error to buy into nationalism. It is crucial to the creation of nationalism. If one looks to carefully at history the narrative of ..." Pretty much one has to forget some things in history in order to bring about nationalism. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations during the French Wars of Religion. A massacre of 20,000 French Protestants by French Catholics. Renan mentions it casually, as all French are obliged to forget. Not to forget it as a whole however, but simply to remember selective parts- in much the same way the civil war is remembered in the “Ethnographic principle” This is the assumption that nations formed on the basis of a common or "pure race". All the

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