Intercepted Muslim slave trade by building a series of forts along the African coastline. They cut out the middle man of Genoese traders.Henry the Navigator died in 1460, which slowed exploration.1470’s Portuguese sailors rounded the Western Coast of Africa and were exploring the Gulf of Guinea1472: Delta of Niger River was reached1475: Equator was reached1483: Reached the moth of the Congo RiverKing John II (1481-1495) decided the pursue the tradition of Henry the Navigator1486: Tropic of Capricorn was crossed1488: Discovery of the southern part of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope3. Portuguese colonial initiatives: Reaching India1297-1498: Vasco de Gama rounded the ape. Crossed the Indian Ocean to Calcutta on the southwestern cost of IndiaViable sea route between Europe and the Far Eastern spice trade.4. Portuguese in the World War of SpicesForts to monopolise the entire spice trade1509: Defeated an Ottoman fleet and then blockade the mouth of the Red Sea1510: Established a series of forts along the western Indian coastline1511: Portuguese ships seized Malacca1515: Reached the coast of China1520’s: even the Venetians were forced to buy heir pepper from Lisbon5. Atlantic Colonization and the New Regime of SlaverySlavery existed on a small scaleNo aspect of slavery was racially based: slaves were usually captives from an array of localesLate 15thcentury: increasingly racializationLisbon, first half of 15thcentury; between 15000 to 20000 African captives sold within a twenty-year period1505: 150000 slaves soldStatus symbols, it became fashionable to own an African slave1460’s: Slaves-based sugar plantations emerged in Portugal’s eastern Atlantic colonies.6. Origins of Spanish Exploration: The ReconquistaIberian Peninsula: first half of the 15thcentury marked by constant conflictsCastile: civil war over the successions to the crownBlending of powerful royal families: 1469, Prince Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella the heiress to CastileThe marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella enables the pursuit of several ambitious policies.