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Answer:Iron deficiency anemia is a condition in which the blood do not have sufficient healthy red blood cells which transport oxygen to the body tissues. however, iron deficiency anemia occurs as a results of insufficient iron in the blood hence the body is unable to produce enough substance in the red blood cell that helps the transportation of oxygen throughout the body tissues. Women of childbearing age, iron deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. Heavy menstrual bleeding occurs when a woman bleeds more or longer than women typically bleed during menstruation. This results to a decline in the red blood cell by decreasing the number of red blood cells that circulate in the body tissues. Iron deficiency anemia occurs as the body tries to compensate for the lost red blood cell using iron reserved to make more hemoglobin which then transport oxygen on red blood cells. Other signs and symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia are tiredness and shortness of breath, but this can be corrected through iron supplementation.
QUESTION 111.A 67-year-old woman presents to the clinic with complaints of weakness, fatigue, paresthesias of the feet and fingers, difficulty walking, loss of appetite, and a sore tongue. These symptoms have been present for several months but the patient thought they were due to her recent retirement and geographic move from the Midwest to New England. The symptoms have gotten worse over the past few weeks and she has noticed that she is much more forgetful. This is of great concern as she worries she might have the beginning stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. Past medical history significant for Hashimoto thyroiditis that she developed in her early 20s. The rest of PMH and social history non- contributory. Physical exam reveals an average sized female whose skin has a sallow appearance. BP 128/74, Pulse 120, respirations 18 and temperature 99.0F orally. Examination of the head and neck reveals a smooth and beefy red tongue. Abdominal exam negative for hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. The APRN recognizes these symptoms and physical exam indicate the patient has pernicious anemia. After appropriate laboratory data received, the definitive diagnosis of pernicious anemia was made. Question 1 of 2:How does pernicious anemia develop? Answer:Pernicious anemia develops due tothinning of the lining of the stomach with a subsequent lack of production of a substance called intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is produced by the cells of the stomach - it is required for the absorption of B12 from the small intestine. Thus, those who suffers from pernicious anemia becomes vitamin B12deficient. In Elderly patientsthere is decreased absorption due to reduced production of intrinsic factor. With patients with Autoimmune disease particularly Addison's disease and vitiligo, the body produces antibodies against the cells producing intrinsic factor. The cells then die and B12 deficiency