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■Islam itself spreaded further: N. Africa, Central Europe, India, & SE Asia ○Crusades ■Al-hakim, the Caliph of Jerusalem, burned the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009=>Christians to view Muslims as heretics ■Pope Urban IIrallied support across France and called for a holy Crusade in 1095.●This leads to July 15, 1099, when the crusaders entered and reconquered Jerusalem ○Salah-ad-Din Yusuf (Saladin) 1187: Muslim leader; intelligent, strong &
charismatic■Allowed free-worshipping and was forgiving like Mohammed. ○Mongols - Ghengis Khan ■Took Baghdad in February 10, 1258■empire spread E. Asia to N. India, Middle East, & parts of E. Europe ■However, W. Mongol conquerors converted to Islam eventually ●Became patrons to the arts ■Mongol conquest played a key role in opening the world Before 1492: Blaut Chpt 3 and LecturesKey Terms●Feudalism: “The class-structured agrarian societies of Africa and Asia as well as Europe” (Blaut 152). ●Middle Ages: Start estimated at the fall of (East) Roman Empire (476 AD). End disputed at either Renaissance, Columbus’ “discovery,” or the Protestant Reformation.●Mode of Production: “A complex of traits including material resources such as land, material culture, labor employed in production and distribution, social rules governing access to material resources and distribution of the output, and some related traits”(Blaut 154). ○Blaut uses the term “feudal mode of production for European feudal society ●Criss-cross Diffusion: “The complex of crops, animals, tools, and ideas...developed in many societies simultaneously...and each new trait...diffuse[d] rapidly to those other parts of the hemisphere in which such a trait was a useful innovation” (Blaut 155-156). spread of technology; BAGHDAD○This process extended agricultural landscape over a vast region of the Easten Hemisphere ●Protocapitalism: “Incipient capitalism, adolescent capitalism...the system as it existed prior to the two revolutionary transformations which brought modern capitalism into existence...It exhibited most of the basic traits of capitalism”(Blaut 165).○Bourgeois Revolution and Industrial Revolutionled to legit capitalism○Existed first on a small scale within another dominant economic system ●Spatial Revolution: “The period during which this system grew most rapidly in scale and intensity was the period during which the technology of oceangoing shipping increased explosively”(Blaut 172). ○Kind of like a sequel to the Agricultural Revolution ○Intensified spatial flows much as the Agricultural Revolution intensified in situproduction ●Maritime Trade and its importance ○The medieval mercantile-maritime system= nursery bed of capitalism
●Swahili Coast:Had wealthy trading city-states. Were among the best boat-builders of the Middle Ages ●Great Zimbabwe: Traded with Swahili Coast to gain access to Medieval maritime trade●Mali/Ghana: Famous for their camel caravans as a mode for travel.