ESBJORN METAWORRY ACCEPTED COPY.doc

The group with other anxiety disorders othad

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The group with other anxiety disorders (Oth.AD) comprised 28 children who did not meet criteria for GAD, but had either separation anxiety disorder (n = 17), specific phobia, (n = 8), or social phobia (n = 3) as their primary disorder. Children with a primary disorder of OCD are, unlike the other anxiety disorders, typically treated in the psychiatric system in Denmark, and were 14 14 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS therefore not enrolled in the present study. A total of 9 children (32%) in the Oth.AD group had a secondary disorder and 8 (29%) also had a tertiary disorder. Apart from other anxiety disorders, the secondary disorders consisted of one case of OCD, mood disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and one tertiary disorder of defiant behavior/conduct disorder. Control children (n = 43) did not meet criteria for any disorder assessed by the ADIS-IV-P. Informants were only asked to provide CSRs if the required number of symptoms and criteria for receiving a diagnosis were met. No child in the non-clinical group met the diagnostic criteria required to warrant a CSR. Therefore, they received a CSR of zero. Ethical Considerations. The study was approved by the Internal Ethical Review Board of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The project adhered to national and university specific ethical guidelines regarding clinical projects. Questionnaire packages were mailed to the families, and completed at home. Oral assent was obtained by the child prior to further assessment, which was conducted by trained project staff. All clinically anxious children were provided with CBT treatment at the anxiety clinic, whereas, children in the control sample were given a gift certificate as an expression of appreciation for their participation. Data analysis. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to determine whether the control group and the combined clinical groups differed in household income or parental education level. Chi-square was employed to detect possible gender differences between the three groups. A one-way ANOVA was calculated to examine age differences between groups. 15 15 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS For the main analyses, a MANOVA was run with diagnostic group as the independent variable and the five metacognitive processes as the dependent variables. The multivariate test statistic Pillai’s trace was used as it is considered the most conservative and robust method (Field, 2009), due to unequal sample sizes and inequality of covariances of the present data. Finally, post hoc Bonferroni analyses were conducted to determine between-group differences on the subscale level. Results Demographics. The Mann-Whitney tests suggest that control and clinical participants were comparable in terms of mother’s level of education and household income. However, the fathers of the children in the clinical groups ( Mdn = 4.00; medium-length practical education) had a significantly lower level of formal education compared to fathers of children in the control group ( Mdn = 5.00; masters-level education or higher), U = 408.50, z = -2.83,
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