Expected benefits are as follows expected reduction

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Expected benefits are as follows: Expected reduction in death due to opioid overdoses.Per the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), there were 27 deaths in children under age 12 from respiratory depression due to codeine or tramadol use between January 1969 and May 2015.3This equates to a conservative estimated of 0.587 deaths per year (27/[2015-1969]). The FDA estimates the value of statistical life at $7.9 million.4This puts estimates of the benefits to be gained from banning opioid cough medicine at a lifetime value of $213.3 million ($7.9M x 27 deaths) or a yearly value of $4.6373 million ($7.9M x 0.587 deaths). This estimate is likely conservative because it only 1U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2National Institute on Drug Abuse, 3U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 4Binyamin Appelbaum, The New York Times,
Assignment #3 Issues Memorandum Anderson pg. 2 includes two types of opioids and does not include children aged 12 to 18. Data can be collected from FAERS for all opioid cough medicine and all ages that would be affected by the proposed ban. Expected reduction in hospital visits due to opioid overdoses and side effects. Cost of care per opioid admission is estimated at $92,400 for adults.513,052 hospitalizations were reported for prescription opioid poisonings for children under age 20 from 1997 to 2012.6This means there were approximately 870 hospitalizations a year. This puts estimates of hospital costs due to opioid cough medicine at approximately $80.39M a year (870 x $92,400). This estimate is likely very generous, as it includes all opioid prescriptions, not just cough medicines. Further investigation can help determine the total number of hospital admissions for minors related to opioid cough medicine and their costs. Expected reduction in paramedic time and associated public costs. The median cost of an ambulance ride in the United States is $429.7Data from one state shows emergency medical services (EMS) responded to 11,884 cases related to opioid overdosing in one year for all age demographics.8Total opioid EMS costs for all age groups are therefore roughly estimated at $254 million ($429 x 11,884 x 50). This estimate is likely incredibly generous, as it includes adults as well as minors. Further investigation can help determine US total numbers as well as data for those under 18.

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