5.Compare the annual costs of two types of pavement structures) WBM with thin bituminous surface at total cost of Rs. 2.2 lakhs per km, life of 5 years, interest at 10%, salvage value of Rs. 0.9 lakhs after 5 years, annual average maintenance cost of Rs. 0.35 lakhs per km and Bituminous macadam base and bituminous concrete surface, total cost of Rs. 4.2 lakhs per km, life of 15 years, interest at 8%, salvage value of Rs. 2.0 lakhs at the end of 15 years ; annual average maintenance cost of Rs. 0.25 lakhs per Ion. (Dec 14, June/July 2015, June/July 2013) Soln: Annual cost of pavement with WBM base and thin bituminous surface = (2.2 -0.9 CRF) ( i= 0.08, n= 5) + 0.1*0.9+0.35 = 1.3*0.2638+.09+0.35 0.78Lakhs Annual cost of bituminous pavement = (4.2 -2.0) CRF ( i= 0.08, n= 5) + 0.08*2+0.25 = 2.2*0.1168+0.16+0.25 0.66 Lakhs Annual cost of bituminous is lower compared to the WBM pavement 6.Explain briefly the various factors affecting vehicle operation coat.( June/July 2013, June/July 2014, June/July 2015)
7.Write a brief note on highway financing in India. (June/July 2013, Dec 2013) Basic principle in highway financing is that the funds spent on highways are recovered from the road users. The recovery may be both direct and indirect. Two general methods of highway financing are: Pay-as-you-go method Credit financing method In pay-as-you-go method, the payment for highway improvements, maintenance and operation is made from the central revenue. In credit financing method, the payment for highway improvement is made from borrowed money and this amount and the interests are re-paid from the future income.