While other sociologist and criminologists were concluding that crime was cause by things like personal defects and being from certain ethnic backgrounds, Merton stepped in to show that it could simple be certain groups participate in criminal behavior because they are responding normally to the social situation in which they find themselves. Although criminal behavior is not good, during the time Merton was studying crime racial and gender inequality were prevalent so it’s safe to assume some crime was just people trying to even the playing field of life. Merton’s primary cultural goal in America was have all beings striving for success and bringing about more equal opportunity for all. Cultural goals and institutionalized means of achieving them go hand and hand for the most part but they differ in the mode of adaptation because of strain.There are five modes of adaptation; conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion. The first, and most common, reaction to anomie is conformity. Most people are conformists. Conformists accept both the cultural goals, and the institutionalized means of achieving such goals. Innovation is the second reaction to anomie, these are the people who accept the cultural goes of success but turn to illegal activity in order achieve that success thus rejecting the institutionalized means. Next you have ritualists who don’t conform to cultural goals of society and follow their own realistic path which they find more plausible goals to be achieved here.
However, they will still work hard for what they fill is attainable for themselves. Retreatists do not cope well with stress so they will give up easily of goals and pursuing them altogether. Rebellion refers to leading people outside of the environing social structure to envision and seek to bring into being greatly modified social structure by being alienated from goals and standards (p.63). Of the weaknesses of the anomie theory one of the major criticism was that it wasn’t a theory at all. Critics argued that his theory is not testable and that is also didn’t include women amongst other things that were lacking.ReferencesKapelos-Peters, A. (2008). Retrieved from -mertons-personal-adaptations-to-anomie-aka-strain-theory/.Moyer, I. L. (2001). Criminological Theories Traditional and Nontraditional Voices and Themes. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Reading 2 Question 3When it comes to the functionalist perspective the sociologist Emile Durkheim can be called the father of its creation. He was the first person to be labeled a functionalist. Durkheim received the first doctor’s degree in sociology and taught the first sociology class in his home country of France. “His importance to criminological theory stems from three of his major publications in which he discussed crime and deviance” (p.54). Durkheim used the study of social facts to separate psychology from sociology in his publication The Rules of Sociological Method. He also argued that crime “was defined in terms of punishment” (p.56). There were two types of social facts, those that conform to given standards (normal) and those that ought to be different (pathological).