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As speakers, we tend to minimize articulatory effort and maximize ease of articulation, because we can rely on the fact that our listeners will be using different types of knowledge in our messageIn minimizing our efforts in articulation, we tend to make adjacent sounds more like each other (assimilation) and sometimes we leave sounds out altogether (elision), we also insert a sound in order to make for a smoother transition (linking).
Sound simplificationAll this happens within words, but when words are combined in the stream of speech their edges also become available for sound simplification.•Adjustment to surrounding: assimilationEach speech sounds is as a set of movements.Series of movements as they occur in connected speech will influence each other.
The exact position of the tongue and the other articulators during a segment therefore depends on where the tongue is coming from and where it is going to: it depends on the neighboring sounds.When we speak at normal speed, individual sound segments follow each other so quickly that the tongue may never reach the ‘ideal position’ connected with a particular sound. it will approximate to this position before it moves on the position necessary for the next segment.
Assimilation-----FC / IC-----•Regressive: if FC changes to become like IC in some way.•Progressive: if IC changes to become FC in some way.•In what ways can a consonant change?•differences in place of articulation•differences in manner of articulation•differences in voicing
Assimilation •A significant difference in natural connected speech is the way that sounds belonging to one word can cause changes in sounds belonging to neighboring words, i.e. when we find a phoneme realized differently as a result of being near some other phoneme belonging to a neighboring word we call this an instance of assimilation. Assimilation is more likely to be found in rapid, casual speech and less likely in slow, careful speech.
Elision•When we minimize our effort, the articulation of sounds is weakened.•If the articulation is weakened too much, the sound may disappear altogether.•This second very common simplification process is called elision.
Elision•In casual speech one sound may be missing for the convenience of speaking, but it doesn’t cause any confusion or misunderstanding that is elision.•There are two types of elision: •consonant missing•vowel missing
Liaison (sound linking)•In natural speech, words are not spoken separately but linked together. Native speakers often link the final sound of speech with the initial sound of the following words, that phenomenon is called liaison.•Two types of liaison are:•consonant-to-vowel•vowel-to-vowel
Linking•What happens if when two vowel-sounds meet at a word boundary?