Jose Alberto planned to divorce his wife because of her infidelity. His wife connived with the Spanish lieutenant of the Guardia Civil and filed a case against Rizal’s mother. Antonio Vivencio del Rosario – gobernadorcillo of Calamba, helped the lieutenant arrest Doña Teodora. 50 kilometers – Doña Teodora was made to walk from Calamba to the provincial prison in Santa Cruz. Don Francisco de Mercaida and Don Manuel Marzan – most famous lawyers of Manila, defended Doña Teodora in court. After 2 ½ years the Royal Audencia acquitted Doña Teodora. Chapter 4: Scholastic Triumphs at Ateneo de Manila (1872-1877) Jose was sent to Manila four months after the Martyrdom of GomBurZa and with Doña Teodora still in prison. He studied in the Ateneo Municipal, a college under the supervision of the Spanish Jesuits. Ateneo Municipal Bitter rival of the Dominican-owned College of San Juan de Letran. Formerly the Escuela Pia (Charity School) – for poor boys in Manila established in 1817. In 1859, name was changed to Ateneo Municipal by the Jesuits and later became the Ateneo de Manila. Rizal Enters the Ateneo June 10, 1872 – Jose, accompanied by Paciano, went to Manila to take the entrance examinations on Christian Doctrine, arithmetic, and reading at College of San Juan de Letran, and passed them. His father was the first one who wished him to study at Letran but he changed his mind and decided to send Jose at Ateneo instead. Father Magin Fernando – college registrar of Ateneo Municipal, refused to admit Jose because: (1) he was late for registration and (2) he was sickly and undersized for his age (11 years old). Manuel Xerez Burgos – nephew of Father Burgos; upon his intercession, Jose Rizal was admitted at Ateneo.
Jose used Rizal instead of Mercado because the name “Mercado” had come under suspicion of the Spanish authorities. Boarded in a house on Caraballo Street, owned by Titay who owed Rizal family 300 pesos. Jesuit System of Education Jesuit trained the character of the student by rigid discipline, humanities, and religious instruction. The students heard Mass in the morning before the beginning of daily class. Classes were opened and closed with prayers. Students were divided into two groups: Roman Empire – consisting of the internos (boarders) with red banners; and Carthaginian Empire – composed of the externos (non-boarders) with blue banners. Each of these empires had its rank. Students fought for positions. Any student could challenge any officer in his “empire” to answer questions on the day’s lesson. With 3 mistakes, opponents could lose his position. 1 st best: EMPEROR 2 nd best: TRIBUNE 3 rd best: DECURION 4 th best: CENTURION 5 th best: STANDARD-BEARER Ateneo students’ uniform is consisted of “hemp-fabric trousers” and “striped cotton coat”. The coat was called rayadillo and was adopted as the uniform for Filipino troops during the days of the First Philippine Republic.
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- Fall '19
- Dr. Maximo Viola- Rizal, Protacio