CLEP Psychology Notes

Concerned himself only with patterns of responses to

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Concerned himself only with patterns of responses to rewards and stimuli o Also part of Operant conditioning is - Escape Conditioning – a reward for escaping a negative situation Coined the word - Operant to describe behaviors one may use to operate in their environment o Controlled by consequences - which are increased or decreased based on reinforcement Operant Conditioning – a response reinforced in the presents of one stimulus also occurs in the presence of anther stimulus Person responds equally to both stimuli, and recognizes a close relationship between the two stimuli Instinctive Drift – some behaviors are more difficult to condition Organisms “drift” to what comes naturally Humanistic Psychology – Greater importance on individual will reaction to Behaviorism and psychoanalysis view is on individual’s own will – NOT environment as in Behaviorism Homeostasis – Walter Cannon the ability of the body to maintain equilibrium, balance, by adjusting the physiological process balance amount internal physiological conditions Example: body temperature, hot we sweat, cold we shiver. Set Point – optimum level of equilibrium or balance As individuals we are driven to return to our Set Point, or optimum, homeostatic level Cognitive Dissonance – state of mental discomfort when our attitudes, thoughts or beliefs are in conflict Tension caused by lack of balance Opponent-Process Theory – our reaction to stimuli produces opposite reactions in order to maintain a balanced level of emotion Cognitive psychology – study that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory and language Cognition – mental events that include, thoughts, ideas, and beliefs Sensing, perceiving, knowing, judging, problem solving, processing information
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Sir Francis Galton – cousin of Charles Darwin (also influenced by) Intrigued with evolution Devised countless tests and measurements of individual differences Alfred Binet – French psychologist Known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence Theordore Simon –helped devise a series of test for schools, industries and the army Stanford-Binet test, IQ is defined as Mental Age (abilities) divided by Chronological Age (in years) multiplied by 100. MA/CA x 100 IQ scores approximate a normal distribution Sigmund Freud – FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Psychoanalysis was the approach to a system of interpretation of therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders o Psychoanalysis – emphasizes the existence of unconscious mind Criticism of Freud - Extremely difficult to test in laboratory’s, making it a theory that no one can prove or disprove Inborn impulses compels one toward survival, include thirst, hunger, sex, are known as life instincts Death Instincts - inborn impulses that compels one toward destruction, including aggression Believed hysteria was caused by emotional disturbance – not the nervous system ID –immediate gratification “pleasure principle”
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Concerned himself only with patterns of responses to...

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